Switzerland: Strumenti contrattuali per lo sviluppo di business

Last Updated: 10 January 2019
Article by Roberta Comerro

Lo sviluppo commerciale e la contestuale tutela di beni ed interessi aziendali esistenti passano attraverso la scelta di adeguate tipologie di contratto.

L'implementazione di piani di sviluppo da parte delle imprese, volte ad incrementare il proprio business tramite idonee tecniche commerciali, non può prescindere da un'analisi degli strumenti che il diritto mette a disposizione, al fine di rendere tali tecniche efficaci e tutelanti, anche in un'ottica di mancata finalizzazione del progetto.

Spesso ci si confronta con uno scenario, in cui la creazione di know-how da parte di reparti di ricerca e sviluppo di imprese medio-piccole non si accompagna alla disponibilità interna di competenze di marketing e mezzi finanziari necessari, affinché la gestione della proprietà industriale possa tradursi in un incremento di utili per l'impresa stessa. Pertanto, risulta indispensabile ricercare opportunità di collaborazione esterne, magari con imprese di maggiori dimensioni, che possano vantare infrastrutture più sofisticate ai fini dello sviluppo di prodotti e commercializzazione dei medesimi.

Per sfruttare al meglio tali sinergie, acquisiscono particolare rilievo le seguenti tipologie contrattuali:

  1. contratti di licenza di proprietà industriale, ivi inclusi disegni, modelli e invenzioni, spesso protetti dal titolare tramite diritti di privativa acquisiti a seguito di brevettazione o registrazione;
  2. contratti di ricerca, contenenti una disciplina puntuale su eventuale futura titolarità di diritti di privativa sui risultati di detti studi ai fini di sfruttamento commerciale dei medesimi;
  3. contratti di servizi per sviluppo prodotti, basati sullo schema di contratti di fornitura di servizi volti allo sviluppo e preparazione di un prodotto ai fini della sua commercializzazione, tipicamente con tappe progettuali definite, a cui corrispondono scadenze di pagamento dei corrispettivi concordati per il completamento di ciascuna;
  4. contratti di marketing, inclusi cd. contratti di co-promotion, che permettono a due imprese di combinare le rispettive risorse di marketing, al fine di promuovere il medesimo prodotto a mezzo di un unico brand o marchio);
  5. contratti di cessione di prodotti / proprietà industriale, da definire a seconda del perimetro dei beni materiali o immateriali da trasferire con riferimento, ad esempio, a singoli beni ovvero un intero ramo d'azienda;
  6. accordi di joint venture contrattuali o societarie, che implicano un'integrazione di due imprese per lo sviluppo di un progetto, sia per il tramite di uno specifico accordo commerciale che regoli il contributo di entrambe le parti al progetto, sia tramite costituzione di un veicolo societario partecipato da entrambe, di cui andrà puntualmente definita la governance societaria, anche attraverso la definizione di patti parasociali;
  7. contratti di cessione di partecipazioni societarie, tramite cui vengono compravendute quote o azioni di società target, permettendo all'acquirente di integrare nella propria compagine societaria la società target, ivi inclusi tutti i diritti e rapporti giuridici (i.e., beni materiale ed immateriali e contratti) facenti capo alla stessa.

Si tratta di contratti la cui negoziazione può risultare piuttosto complessa in relazione al perimetro della collaborazione e per via dei profili di internazionalità che tali operazioni possono rivestire, in funzione della sede delle parti coinvolte, ovvero del luogo di adempimento degli obblighi contrattuali. Pertanto, in caso di operazioni straordinarie, quali acquisizioni di partecipazioni societarie ovvero di rami d'azienda, sarà indispensabile una pianificazione dell'operazione che ancora una volta, non potrà prescindere dall'utilizzo di strumenti giuridici al fine della tutela dei rispettivi interessi anche nella fase pre-contrattuale.

A tal proposito, oltre alla usuale stipula di accordi di confidenzialità da perfezionarsi prima dell'inizio delle trattative, onde evitare l'utilizzo indesiderato di informazioni aziendali che verranno condivise durante la fase negoziale, opportuno rilievo dovrà essere dato ad eventuali lettere d'intenti, che possono contenere semplici dichiarazioni di intenti improduttive di effetti giuridici, ma anche obblighi e diritti che potrebbero sorgere già nella fase delle trattative (es. mantenimento del diritto di esclusiva per un certo periodo di tempo), ovvero che importano la negoziazione anticipata di termini e condizioni che dovranno essere contenuti nel contratto finale.

Originally published by AITI Servizi, December 2018.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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