Israel: Upper / Failure To Grant A Foreign Invention Permit For An Application For Approval Of An Arbitration Award (Hebrew)

Last Updated: 27 February 2018
Article by Yoram Shiv

בית המשפט העליון קבע ברוב דעות כי עילות ההמצאה הקבועות בתקנות סדר הדין האזרחי אינן מאפשרות המצאה לחו"ל של בקשה לאישור פסק בוררות ישראלי שניתן מכוח תניית בוררות בחוזה.

לעניינו, יש להבחין בין שלושה שלבים בבוררות: מתן פסק הבוררות, אישור פסק הבוררות ואכיפת פסק הבוררות. כל עוד הבקשה לאישור פסק הבוררות לא תומצא לאדם שהפסיד בבוררות, לא יוכל יריבו לאשר את פסק הבוררות בבית המשפט ולנקוט בהליכים לאכיפתו.

פסק הדין עוסק בערעור שהוגש על ידי תושבי חוץ לבית המשפט העליון לביטול היתר המצאה אליהם של בקשה לאישור פסק בוררות ישראלי שניתן לטובת תושב ישראל. בית המשפט ציין כי הצעד שעל מי שמבקש לאכוף את פסק הבוררות לנקוט בנסיבות המקרה דנן הוא אישור (או הכרה) של פסק הבוררות במדינת מושבו של הצד שמבקשים לאכוף כנגדו את פסק הבוררות, דהיינו הגשת בקשה בבית משפט במקום מושבו בחו"ל וזאת בהתאם לאמנה בינלאומית (אמנת ניו-יורק).

בית המשפט העליון קיבל את הערעור וציין כי עילות ההמצאה לחו"ל הקבועות בתקנות סדר הדין האזרחי הינן רשימה סגורה. המשותף לכל העילות הוא קיומה של זיקה מסוימת לישראל. לעילות ההמצאה השונות יש לתת פרשנות מצמצמת וכל ספק שקיים באשר לשאלה אם העובדות נכנסות לגדרה של עילה נתונה יפעל לטובת בעל הדין הזר.

בית המשפט העליון קבע כי בהתאם לנוסח ההוראה בתקנות סדר הדין האזרחי המתייחסת לקבלת היתר המצאה לחו"ל בקשר לעילות חוזיות שהן בעלות זיקה לישראל, לא ניתן לומר כי תובענה לאישור פסק בוררות מבוססת על עילה חוזית שכן היא נובעת מדיני הבוררות, וזאת על אף שתניית הבוררות נקבעה בחוזה. בד בבד, בית המשפט העליון קבע שאין לשלול כי בנסיבות מסוימות, אשר עניין זה אינו נכנס בגדרן, ניתן יהיה להתיר המצאה מחוץ לתחום של בקשה לאישור או לביטול פסק בוררות שניתן בישראל אך לא ניתנה דוגמא לכך.

בית המשפט העליון ציין כי מסקנה זו מביאה לתוצאה שאינה רצויה, לפיה אדם שחתם על הסכם הכולל תניית בוררות לפיה ניתן יהיה לקיים בוררות בישראל וניתן נגדו פסק בוררות בישראל, אך הוא אינו נמצא פיזית בישראל, לא ניתן יהא להמציא לו בקשה לאישור פסק הבוררות. אך עד אשר לא יתוקנו התקנות זהו המצב המשפטי ואל לבית המשפט להרחיב את עילות ההמצאה בדרך פסיקתית, נוכח הרגישות הכרוכה ברכישת סמכות שיפוט על נתבע זר.

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