Turkey: Ortakliğin Giderilmesi (İzale-İ Şuyu)

Last Updated: 5 July 2019
Article by Emir Aksoy LL.M., LL.M. IP

Ortaklığın giderilmesi davası halk arasında izale-i şuyu olarak da bilinir. Ortaklığın giderilmesi davası ile paylı veya elbirliği mülkiyetine tabi taşınır veya taşınmaz mallar üzerinde hak sahibi olan paydaşlar arasındaki ortaklık sonlandırılarak, kişisel mülkiyete geçiş sağlanır. Herhangi bir paydaş tarafından tüm paydaşlara karşı açılır ve paydaşlar arasında zorunlu dava arkadaşlığı bulunur. Tüm paydaşların ortaklığın giderilmesi davasında bulunması zorunludur. Paydaşlardan birinin ölümü halinde paydaşın tüm mirasçılarının davaya dahil edilmesi gerekir.

Ortaklığın giderilmesi davasında görevli mahkeme sulh hukuk mahkemesi olup, yetkili mahkeme dava konusu bir taşınır ise murisin son yerleşim yeri olmakla birlikte, dava konusunun bir taşınmaz olması durumunda taşınmazın bulunduğu yer mahkemesidir.

İzale-i şuyu davasında davayı açan paydaş matbu harcı ve giderleri karşılamakla yükümlüdür, ancak dava sonunda davacı paydaş tarafından ödenen mahkeme giderleri ve vekalet ücreti paydaşlar arasında payları oranında paylaştırılarak ödenir.

Eğer paydaşlar kendi aralarında anlaşır ve bu paylaşım planını hakime sunarlarsa, hakim ortaklığın taraflarca üzerinde anlaşılan şekilde paylaştırılmasına karar verebilir.

Bu konuda taraflarca bir anlaşmaya gidilememesi durumunda ortaklığın giderilmesinin aynen taksim, satış ve kat mülkiyeti kurulması olmak üzere üç yolu bulunmaktadır. Ortaklığın giderilmesi davasında ana kural öncelikle aynen taksime başvurulmasıdır; yani taşınmazın satış yoluna gidilmeden paydaşlar arasında payları oranında bölünerek aralarındaki ortaklığın sonlandırılmasıdır. Eğer bu konuda bir talep yok ise, hakim kendiliğinden taşınmazın aynen taksimi yoluna gidemez.

Ortaklığın satış yoluyla giderilmesi de Türk Medeni Kanununun 699. maddesinin  üçüncü paragrafında düzenlenmiştir. Bölme işleminin durum ve koşullara uygun görülmemesi durumunda ve özellikle paylı malın önemli bir değer kaybına uğramadan bölünmesine olanak yoksa açık artırmayla satışa hükmolunur. Satışın paydaşlar arasında artırmayla yapılmasına karar verilmesi bütün paydaşların oybirliği ile mümkündür.

Kat mülkiyetine kurulması mümkün olan bir taşınmaz üzerinde izale-i şuyu yoluna gidilmesi söz konusu ise paydaşlar arasında payları oranında kat mülkiyetine tabi bağımsız bölümlerin paylaştırılması sağlanarak da ortaklığın giderilmesi yoluna gidilebilir. Eğer paylaştırılan bölümler arasında değer farkı bulunuyorsa, bu fark Türk Medeni Kanununun 699. maddesinde açıkca belirtildiği üzere bölünen parçaların değerlerinin birbirine denk düşmemesi halinde eksik değerdeki parçaya para eklenerek denkleştirilir.

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