China: 抵押登记部门错误登记行为的行政救济措施

Last Updated: 14 August 2019
Article by Wu Juanping
Most Read Contributor in China, August 2019

《物权法》颁布前,学界关于登记机构的设置和职能一直有较大争议,由于该问题涉及我国行政管理体制等诸多因素,《物权法》颁布时采取了回避态度。在此背景下,《物权法》对错误登记的法律救济问题,也没有正面回应,而只是在《物权法》第21条作了原则性的规定,即:"当事人提供虚假材料申请登记,给他人造成损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。因错误登记,给他人造成损害的,登记机构应当承担赔偿责任。登记机构赔偿后,可以向造成错误登记的人追偿。"

从积极方面来看,这一原则性规定是给法律适用留下解释空间;但从消极方面来看,也不可避免地产生立法衔接上的不畅和司法实践的混乱。在错误登记过程中,关于登记机构如何履行审查义务、其应承担的错误登记损害赔偿责任是否属于国家赔偿责任以及因登记行为产生的纠纷是否可以适用行政诉讼程序等问题仍然是难以跨越的技术性障碍。因此,本文结合公开检索到的案例,从五个方面分析了相关行政诉讼案件的裁判思路,以期能够窥斑见豹,明确错误登记的行政救济措施。需要说明的是,与抵押登记行政赔偿直接相关的案例较少,为全面进行本专题研究,本文也检索了其他行政赔偿诉讼的案例,一并在下列示。

【检索信息】

检索工具:中国裁判文书网、无讼等
检索关键词:"错误登记"、"行政赔偿"等
检索时间:2019年6月29日
涉诉案例数量:33件

【检索结论】

1.行政行为被确认无效或违法后,原告无法证明该行政行为给其造成实际损失的,行政机关将不承担行政赔偿责任。对于抵押登记,有案例认定,动产抵押自双方的抵押合同成立时即已生效,该抵押登记仅产生对抗善意第三人的后果。即便抵押登记被确认无效,其法律后果也仅是该抵押权人优先权顺位劣后于其他权利人,动产抵押登记行为不会直接造成该抵押权人的损失。

2.根据《动产抵押登记办法》,有关单位可以持合法身份证明文件,向登记机关查阅、抄录或者复印有关动产抵押登记的资料。后顺位抵押权人在办理动产抵押登记时,登记部门不负有告知抵押物已经抵押登记的义务。后顺位抵押权人以登记部门未告知已抵押信息为由,主张登记部门程序违法并请求行政赔偿的,人民法院不予支持。

3.超过起诉期限提起的行政赔偿之诉,不予受理或裁定驳回起诉。

4.原告可以在提起确认违法、无效或撤销的行政诉讼时,选择一并提起行政赔偿诉讼。在此情况下,适用行政诉讼起诉期限的规定,原告超过起诉期限提起行政诉讼的,其一并提起的行政赔偿之诉也将被驳回起诉。

5.原告也可以单独提起行政赔偿诉讼。行政行为被确认违法,是原告单独提起行政赔偿诉讼的前提。行政行为未被确认违法,原告单独提起行政赔偿的,将被驳回起诉。

6.原告单独提起行政赔偿的,在行政行为被确认违法后,应在法定期间内先向赔偿义务机关提起行政赔偿申请,原告对赔偿义务机关作出的行政赔偿决定或不予作出赔偿决定的行为不服的,才可以向人民法院提起行政赔偿之诉。未经赔偿义务机关先行处理,人民法院将驳回原告起诉。

【检索案例分析】

一、登记部门是否应对被确认无效的错误动产抵押登记承担赔偿责任

案例:

湖南双峰农村商业银行股份有限公司与双峰县工商行政管理和质量技术监督局行政登记二审行政判决书(湖南省娄底市中级人民法院(2017)湘13行终71号)

案件事实:

2011年9月5日,朱海良向原双峰县农村信用合作联社立据借款1800万元。原缙云县新永茂不锈钢有限公司以公司所有的三组机械设备为朱海良的前述借款提供抵押担保,原双峰县工商行政管理局为前述抵押办理了动产抵押登记。2014年4月4日,因朱海良未能按约还本付息,原双峰县农村信用合作联社向双峰县人民法院申请实现担保物权,双峰县人民法院于同年4月10日作出裁定:对缙云县新永茂不锈钢有限公司所有的担保财产准予采取拍卖、变卖等方式依法变价,双峰县农村信用合作联社对变价后所得款项在借款1800万元及利息的抵押债权范围内优先受偿。2014年8月1日,浙江省缙云县人民法院裁定受理新永茂科技有限公司破产申请,并指定浙江丽水佳信会计师事务所为新永茂科技有限公司破产管理人。在破产清算期间,国金公司、西门子公司就前述用于抵押担保的机械设备向新永茂科技有限公司破产管理人主张权利。破产管理人认为,第三人新永茂公司的住所地在浙江省缙云县,不在双峰县境内,用于抵押登记的机械设备也不在双峰县境内,原双峰县工商行政管理局对原青树坪信用社与原新永茂不锈钢有限公司的动产抵押进行抵押登记,属于没有依据的重大且明显违法情形。因此,双峰县工商行政管理局办理的抵押登记无效,不能对抗善意第三人,两公司系善意买受人,其权利优先于抵押权人双峰农商银行。原告双峰农商银行不服,于2016年5月11日向缙云县人民法院提起破产债权确认纠纷的诉讼,缙云县人民法院于2016年10月25日判决驳回原告的全部诉讼请求。原告不服该判决提起上诉。浙江省丽水市中级人民法院于2016年12月16日作出终审判决:驳回上诉,维持原判。

原告于2016年12月1日提起行政诉讼,要求确认被告于2011年9月5日颁发给原告的动产抵押登记书无效,由被告赔偿原告贷款损失1800万元。

另,2014年7月25日,原双峰县农村信用合作联社及所辖农村信用社整体改制为湖南双峰农村商业银行股份有限公司。2016年3月1日,原双峰县工商行政管理局撤销,与双峰县质量技术监督局合并为双峰县工商行政管理和质量技术监督局。

案件相关事实如下图所示:

争议焦点:

错误登记被确认无效的,工商部门是否应承担行政赔偿责任

法院裁判:

《动产抵押登记办法》第二条规定,企业、个体工商户、农业生产经营者以《中华人民共和国物权法》第一百八十条第一款第四项、第一百八十一条规定的动产抵押的,应当向抵押人住所地的县级工商行政管理部门(以下简称登记机关)办理登记。抵押权自抵押合同生效时设立;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。本案中,虽然被诉抵押行为发生在2011年9月,但原审原告曾于2014年4月向双峰县人民法院申请实现担保物权,双峰县人民政府已裁定可以优先受偿,直至2016年10月浙江省缙云县人民法院一审判决认为抵押登记无效之前,均是基于对行政机关和法院的公信力与信赖。原审法院认为原审原告的起诉没有超过起诉期限并无不当。本案涉及的用于抵押登记的机械设备不在双峰县境内,新永茂公司的住所地也不在双峰县境内,上诉人双峰县工商局对此进行抵押登记违反了前述法律法规的规定,一审判决确认该抵押登记书无效正确。上诉人双峰农商行要求上诉人双峰工商局赔偿其贷款1800万元及相应利息,因本案中的动产抵押登记系双方当事人自愿选择,动产抵押自双方的抵押合同成立时即已生效,该抵押登记书无效仅产生不能对抗善意第三人的后果,并不会直接造成上诉人双峰农商行贷款1800万元及相应利息损失,且上诉人双峰农商行在一审审理过程中没有提交其损失的相关依据,一审法院认为其赔偿请求缺乏事实和法律依据予以驳回并无不当。

二、登记部门未主动告知相关抵押登记信息是否构成程序违法

案例:

刘济邦与东莞市工商行政管理局赔偿类二审行政赔偿判决书(广东省东莞市中级人民法院(2015)东中法行终字第14号)

案件事实:

2011年7月2日,刘济邦作为甲方,东莞市永昶纸业有限公司作为乙方,胡宝明、胡积建作为丙方,三方签订借款合同,约定乙方向甲方借入430万元;乙方愿意以扬克抄纸机一台以及相关配电、发电、打浆等等现有的配套设备设施作为抵押担保。2011年7月4日,刘济邦作为抵押权人与抵押人东莞市永昶纸业有限公司到东莞工商局,以前述机器设备办理动产抵押登记。申请抵押登记时,《动产抵押登记书》"声明"一栏内容为"登记双方已阅读并知晓《动产抵押登记须知》,确保所填写资料真实、合法、准确、完备",刘济邦作为抵押权人对上述"声明"内容签名予以确认。东莞工商局经审查,认为上述材料齐全,符合法定形式,在该《动产抵押登记书》上加盖动产抵押登记专用章。

后刘济邦因东莞市永昶纸业有限公司到期未履行借款合同提起民事诉讼。2012年12月10日,原审法院判决东莞市永昶纸业有限公司向刘济邦归还借款430万元及利息,另判决刘济邦对抵押物享有优先受偿权,该判决书于2013年3月14日生效。2014年5月9日,刘济邦向东莞工商局提交《行政赔偿申请书》,认为东莞工商局在办理动产抵押登记时违反法定程序,未及时告知涉案抵押物已经抵押给东莞银行的信息,导致其遭受财产损失,要求东莞工商局赔偿其借东莞市永昶纸业有限公司的430万元本金及利息412.80万元。东莞工商局受理后,于2014年7月9日作出《行政赔偿决定书》,认为刘济邦的赔偿申请缺乏事实及法律依据,决定不予行政赔偿。刘济邦不服,提起行政赔偿诉讼。

案件相关事实如下图所示:

争议焦点:

东莞工商局在办理案涉抵押登记时,未告知其涉案抵押物已存在抵押登记是否程序违法

法院裁判:

《动产抵押登记办法》第十一条规定:"有关单位和个人可以持合法身份证明文件,向动产抵押登记机关查阅、抄录或者复印有关动产抵押登记的资料。"与此同时,《动产抵押登记须知》第九条亦规定:"国家工商行政管理总局《动产抵押登记办法》第十一条规定,有关单位和个人可以持合法身份证明文件,向登记机关查阅、抄录或者复印有关动产抵押登记的资料。"而东莞工商局所提供的上述《动产抵押登记须知》正系《动产抵押登记办法》的附件内容,刘济邦在案涉《动产抵押登记书》的"声明"栏中,签字确认已阅读并知晓《动产抵押登记须知》,应视为东莞工商局在办理案涉抵押登记时已书面告知刘济邦有权申请查阅有关动产抵押登记资料。如前所述,由于案涉抵押机器设备登记资料并非东莞工商局依职权须主动公开信息范畴,而需依申请方申请获取,东莞工商局在办理案涉抵押登记时已书面告知刘济邦有权申请查阅、抄录或复印有关动产抵押登记资料,刘济邦没有向东莞工商局申请查阅有关案涉抵押机器设备登记的资料,并在《动产抵押登记书》中备注"登记抵押的机器设备没有抵押给第三方"等内容,由此造成的相应法律后果理当由其自行承担。刘济邦上诉主张前述备注内容是东莞工商局告知并要求其填写的,但无证据证明,应当承担举证不能的不利后果。据此,刘济邦现以东莞工商局未将与其有利害关系的信息予以公开并告知为由,认为东莞工商局作出的案涉抵押登记程序违法,要求东莞工商局予以赔偿的申请不能成立。

三、一并提起的行政赔偿是否适用行政诉讼的起诉期限

案例:

积石山县国福砂石料厂、甘肃省积石山保安族东乡族撒拉族自治县人民政府环境保护行政管理(环保)再审审查与审判监督行政裁定书(最高人民法院(2019)最高法行申1948号)

案件事实:

2015年4月1日,积石山县环保局作出涉案《通知书》,责令国福砂石料厂停止建设,并于当日强制国福砂石料厂的机械手将三台机械设备开出施工现场。2017年7月,国福砂石料厂向一审法院起诉,请求确认积石山县环保局对其实施的责令停止建设的行政行为违法,判决赔偿因违法行政行为给其造成的损失51,889,473.2元。

案件相关事实如下图所示:

争议焦点:

一并提起的行政赔偿起诉期限如何计算

法院裁判:

国福砂石料厂一审诉讼请求是判决确认被申请人积石山县环保局2015年4月1日对其实施的责令停止建设的行政行为违法,判决被申请人赔偿因违法行政行为给其造成的损失51,889,473.20元。本案中,积石山县环保局于2015年4月1日作出涉案《通知书》,并于当日强制国福砂石料厂的机械手将三台机械设备开出施工现场。针对上述行为的起诉期限应当适用当时有效的《最高人民法院关于执行<中华人民共和国行政诉讼法>若干问题的解释》第四十一条第一款关于"行政机关作出具体行政行为时,未告知公民、法人或者其他组织诉权或者起诉期限的,起诉期限从公民、法人或者其他组织知道或者应当知道诉权或者起诉期限之日起计算,但从知道或者应当知道具体行政行为内容之日起最长不得超过2年"的规定,一、二审裁定适用2018年2月8日起施行的《最高人民法院关于适用<中华人民共和国行政诉讼法>的解释》第六十四条第一款关于"行政机关作出行政行为时,未告知公民、法人或者其他组织起诉期限的,起诉期限从公民、法人或者其他组织知道或者应当知道起诉期限之日起计算,但从知道或者应当知道行政行为内容之日起最长不得超过一年"的规定,适用法律不当,本院予以指正。但本案被诉行政行为作出时间是2015年4月1日,国福砂石料厂当日即知道该行为的内容,其于2017年7月起诉,已经超过2年的起诉期限。根据《中华人民共和国国家赔偿法》第三十九条第一款关于"赔偿请求人请求国家赔偿的时效为两年,自其知道或者应当知道国家机关及其工作人员行使职权时的行为侵犯其人身权、财产权之日起计算,但被羁押等限制人身自由期间不计算在内。在申请行政复议或者提起行政诉讼时一并提出赔偿请求的,适用行政复议法、行政诉讼法有关时效的规定"的规定,国福砂石料厂一并提起的行政赔偿诉讼也超过了2年的起诉期限。一、二审裁定驳回起诉的处理并无不当。国福砂石料厂主张其请求积石山县环保局批准其环境影响报告及相关诉讼的期间不属于其自身原因耽误的起诉期限,但请求批准环境影响报告和诉讼并不影响其提起本案诉讼,该期间不属于扣除或者延长起诉期限的情形,故对其该主张本院不予支持。

四、对于未经确认违法的行政行为是否可以单独提起行政赔偿诉讼

案例:

谢建平、伊宁县人民政府资源行政管理:林业行政管理(林业)再审审查与审判监督行政裁定书(最高人民法院(2018)最高法行申2738号)

案件事实:

2002年8月,谢建平取得了伊宁县政府颁发的林证字(2002)第0001号林权证,面积10000亩,林种次生林,使用期70年,2072年到期。2006年6月,伊宁林业局取得了林证字(2006)第4246号林权证,面积138621亩,林种生态林,包含了原告林权证中的3881亩林地。2016年12月,谢建平向一审法院起诉,要求赔偿其损失。

案件相关事实如下图所示:

争议焦点:

对于未经确认违法的行政行为,谢建平是否可以单独提起行政赔偿诉讼

法院裁判:

《最高人民法院关于审理行政赔偿案件若干问题的规定》第四条第一款规定:"公民、法人或者其他组织在提起行政诉讼的同时一并提出行政赔偿请求的,人民法院应一并受理。"第二十一条规定:"赔偿请求人单独提起行政赔偿诉讼,应当符合下列条件:......(4)加害行为为具体行政行为的,该行为已被确认为违法......"。依据以上规定可知,行政行为被确认违法,是赔偿请求人单独提起行政赔偿诉讼的前提。本案中,谢建平在所涉行政行为并未被确认违法的情况下,单独提起行政赔偿诉讼,不具备法定条件。

五、对于未经赔偿义务机关先行处理的行政行为是否可以单独提起行政赔偿诉讼

案例:

刘兰芬、郑州市金水区人民政府再审审查与审判监督行政裁定书(最高人民法院(2018)最高法行申11189号)

案件事实:
刘兰芬在金水区有一处合法房屋,该房屋于2013年12月8日和9日被金水区政府强制拆除。金水区政府强制拆除刘兰芬房屋的行政行为,2015年9月23日已被郑州市中级人民法院生效行政判决书确认为违法。刘兰芬于2016年5月18日向一审法院提起诉讼,要求行政赔偿。

案件相关事实如下图所示:

争议焦点:

行政行为被确认违法后,刘兰芬未向金水区政府申请先行处理的能否直接提起行政赔偿之诉

法院裁判:

《最高人民法院关于审理行政赔偿案件若干问题的规定》第二十一条规定:"赔偿请求人单独提起行政赔偿诉讼,应当符合下列条件:......(4)加害行为为具体行政行为的,该行为已被确认为违法;(5)赔偿义务机关已先行处理或超过法定期限不予处理;......。"本案中,再审申请人刘兰芬提起本案诉讼,要求金水区政府赔偿其临时过渡费。虽然金水区政府强制拆除再审申请人房屋的行政行为已被确认为违法,但再审申请人并未向金水区政府申请先行处理,在此情况下,再审申请人提起本案诉讼,不符合单独提起行政赔偿诉讼的法定条件,其起诉依法应予驳回。

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