Brazil: 5 pasos para establecer un negocio en Brasil

Comenzar y operar un negocio en Brasil puede ser complejo y requiere una comprensión profunda de todas las reglas y regulaciones.

Para operar a nivel local, las compañías deben navegar el largo proceso de incorporación a través de cinco pasos principales con obligaciones más pequeñas en cada uno de ellos. El proceso completo para establecer una nueva entidad en Brasil puede tomar entre 60-90 días, además del tiempo necesario para abrir una cuenta bancaria.

1. Planificación para asegurar preparación

El primer paso para establecer su negocio en Brasil es la planificación y recopilación de toda la información necesaria para brindarle a las autoridades mediante el resto de los procesos. Debe definir el tipo de entidad bajo el que quiere que opere su negocio en Brasil. Hay algunas opciones tales como una sociedad, una SRL o una sucursal. Otra opción más reciente se llama Eireli. Se trata de una sociedad con solo un socio y un requisito de capital mínimo. Alrededor del 90% de las compañías en Brasil eligen convertirse en sociedades de responsabilidad limitada. El tipo de compañía que elija se basa en las actividades y futuros planes de la compañía en el país. Estos planes deben estar definidos anticipadamente, incluyendo las actividades específicas y el lugar dónde se desarrollarán en el país. Esto es imprescindible dado que cada municipio tiene diferentes códigos y reglas tributarias en base al tipo de actividades y serán relevantes cuando se registre ante las autoridades municipales.

Durante la etapa de planificación, las compañías también deben elegir un domicilio desde el cual opere su negocio que sea compatible con la actividad que desarrollará. Por ejemplo, una industria no puede operar en un área comercial o residencial. A fin de registrar el acta de constitución, se debe establecer un domicilio, por lo cual este punto debe completarse antes del registro.

Otro requerimiento en Brasil es elegir un nombre corporativo que contenga el tipo de actividad que realizará su negocio. Si iniciará operaciones de negocios con una firma constructora, la palabra "edificio" o "construcción" necesita estar presente en el nombre. Aunque, al registrarlo, podrá indicar un nombre de marca que se utilizará comercialmente que no necesita describir la actividad.

El acta de constitución debe incluir el monto del capital corporativo que se utilizará para iniciar la compañía y cuándo se pagará el capital. Esto significa que la compañía debe decidir los montos de dinero y el tiempo durante la fase de planificación.

2. Registro del acta de constitución

Luego de que la etapa de planificación se complete, la información para completar el acta de constitución estará lista y los formularios pueden presentarse a la Junta de Comercio. Dependiendo del estado, hay varios costos asociados con el registro. El acta de constitución debe incluir lo siguiente:

  • nombre de la entidad;
  • domicilio del negocio;
  • accionistas;
  • capital;
  • actividad;
  • nombre de la compañía;
  • administrador de la compañía (debe residir en Brasil).

3. Registro ante las autoridades públicas

El próximo paso en el proceso de incorporación requiere el registro ante varias autoridades diferentes con registros obligatorios en el la Secretaría de Ingresos Federales, la autoridad municipal y la autoridad estatal. Dependiendo de las actividades de los empleados, la compañía también debe estar registrada con los sindicatos individuales. Los tipos de negocios específicos también requieren otros registros con diferentes autoridades, como abogados, contadores, compañías farmacéuticas, etc. Existen varios honorarios y procedimientos para los registros ante cada autoridad, lo cual se agrega a la complejidad y el tiempo que puede tomar.

4. Registrar la compañía ante el Banco Central de Brasil

Este paso es muy importante y obligatorio para las compañías con accionistas extranjeros. Se emitirá un Código de Identificación Fiscal para las compañías que se utilizará para cualquier trámite en Brasil. Este proceso puede completarse de forma virtual, pero debe brindarse toda la información sobre el Beneficiario Único (UBO).

5. Abrir una cuenta bancaria

Si bien este es el último paso en el proceso de incorporación, es muy complejo y lleva mucho tiempo. Con un extenso procedimiento de Conoce a tu Cliente (KYC) por parte del banco, este proceso puede llevar desde algunos días hasta tres meses para abrir una cuenta bancaria, dependiendo de la relación con el banco y su situación financiera.

Los documentos necesarios para abrir una cuenta bancaria son los siguientes:

  • documentos de los accionistas;
  • acta de constitución;
  • código de identificación fiscal.

Podemos ayudarle

TMF Brasil puede guiar a su negocio durante todo el proceso de establecimiento. Sabemos cuán importante es cada paso y cómo no hacerlo de forma adecuada puede impactar en su negocio y carga tributaria. Nuestros expertos se distinguen al navegar a través de cada paso del proceso y se aseguran de que toda la documentación sea correcta para presentar ante las autoridades, siguiendo un camino mucho más rápido para su negocio. En lugar de los habituales 60-90 días que son necesarios para incorporar su negocio en Brasil, nuestros expertos pueden acortar el tiempo a 15-20 días. Nuestro conocimiento local nos convierte en el socio perfecto para sus necesidades de negocio en Brasil. Contáctenos.

¿Quiere conocer más acerca de hacer negocios en Brasil? Descargue el perfil de país gratuito.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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