European Union: Parlamentul European da tonul reglementarii "online-ului"​

Last Updated: 5 April 2019
Article by Adrian Iordache

[Am raspuns cu placere invitatiei de a contribui la materialul publicat astazi de Pagina de Media cu privire la noua propunere de Directiva a PE si a Consiliului cu privire la Copyright-ul in mediul digital, si care se gaseste aici. Reluam mai jos integral contributia noastra.]

Pe 26 martie, Parlamentul European a aprobat primul draft din noua Directiva cu privire la Copyright in mediul digital, dupa o lunga si contencioasa dezbatere atat in interiorul forurilor europene cat si in industria media din Europa. Spunem de la bun inceput ca Directiva nu este inca adoptata definitiv, ea trebuie inca sa fie adoptata formal de catre Consiliu, adoptare anticipata pentru mijlocul lui aprilie. De spus tot de la bun inceput este si ca, fiind vorba despre o Directiva, modul de implementare in fiecare Stat Membru va fi subiect de lungi si probabil controversate dezbateri viitoare. Termenul limita pentru implementare este de 24 de luni de la intrarea in vigoare (care pica la 20 de zile de la publicare, deci probabil spre inceputul lui mai 2019.) Textul adoptat de EP este aici

De ce o Directiva controversata? Pentru ca priveste cateva zone de reglementare cu impact in industrii foarte valoroase si cu efecte asupra consumatorilor. 

Directiva e ambitioasa si pare ca incearca sa puna ceva ordine drepturile de proprietate intelectuala din mediul online, un spatiu care si-a trait deja o copilarie destul de salbatica vreme de 20 de ani.  Cateva stegulete rosii: 

Acces:

Pe de-o parte, Directiva pare sa faciliteze accesul (fara risc legal) la continut ce nu mai este 'pe piata', introducand proceduri de licentiere colectiva si de informare cu privire la detinatorii drepturilor si valorificarea lor curenta. In acelasi sens, se cere Statelor sa institutionalizeze medierea negocierii accesului dintre detinatorii de drepturi asupra operelor audiovizuale si platformele de video-on-demand, si se limiteaza reintroducerea protectiei asupra operelor iesite din termenul de protectie IP la aranjamente suficient de originale incat sa fie in sine protejabile. 

Articolele  de presa:

Foarte contencioasa a fost introducerea unui drept de licentiere in beneficiul organelor de presa cu privire la distributia online a continutului lor pe platformele de servicii al societății informaționale" (definit ca orice serviciu prestat în mod normal în schimbul unei remunerații, la distanță, prin mijloace electronice și la solicitarea individuală a beneficiarului serviciului), care dureaza 2 ani (de la 1 ianuarie imediat urmator publicarii). In urma negocierilor intense din EP, dreptul nu se aplica:

  • Articolelor publicate anterior Directivei; 
  • Utilizarii ne-comerciale sau private;  
  • Link-urilor; 
  • Extraselor foarte sumare (de ex, un cuvant sau cateva cuvinte). 

Interesant, se rezerva cu aceeasi ocazie si un drept al detinatorilor de drepturi incorporate in articolul respectiv, un drept la participarea in veniturile obtinute din licenta perceputa. 

Platformele de content-sharing:

Platformele de content-sharing (adica acelea care au ca macar unul din scopurile principale punerea la dispozitie catre public de continut furnizat de catre utilizatori, dar care continut este organizat si promovat in scopul obtinerii de profit) vor avea nevoie sa obtina licente de utilizare de la detinatorii de drepturi de proprietate intelectuala ale materialelor. Fara aceasta licentiere (sau in afara ei), platformele au obligatii specifice sa incerce licentierea, sa caute sa filtreze informatia care incalca drepturi de propreitate intelectuala si sa reactioneze eficient ca raspuns la sesizari de incalcare. 

Negocierile au adus multe exceptii. Se excepteaza platformele non-profit, sau open source (dar nu numai) iar in cazul furnizorilor mici sau la inceput de drum, oblgiatia de filtrare a continutului ne-conform e diminuata. Cumva, cumva, solutiile tehnice trebuie sa permita utilizatorilor sa genereze continut care include material protejat cand utilizarea in sine este exceptata, precum in cazul citarii legitime, sau in scopul criticarii, recenziei, satirei, parodiei etc. (Vom avea nevoie de filtre digitale cu simtul ironiei?)

Remuneratia autorilor si performerilor:

Directiva introduce si obligatia Statelor de a introduce protectii pentru autori si performeri, in sensul in care ei trebuie sa se bucure de remuneratie potrivita si proportionala cu exploatarea operei lor in baza unei licente, precum si sa primeasca informari cu privire la exploatare si sa isi poata retrage autorizarea pentru exploatare in cazul in care opera, desi licentiata, nu a fost exploatata. 

In loc de concluzii? 

Textul e complex si prin de conditii, exceptii si nuante, si mai ales de loc de manevra in implementare de catre Statele Membre. Cu alte cuvinte, efectele sunt cu bataie lunga, dar cu siguranta vor influenta modul in care interactionam cu platformele de socializare si de content sharing si streaming.  

Daca va modifica substantial modelul de business al presei online, ramane de vazut, iar masura in care asta promoveaza dezvoltarea de platforme europene (deja la ordine de marime in urma US si China), va ramane un subiect de controversa politica.  

O complicatie suplimentara vine si dinspre Brexit, si e foarte posibil ca UK sa nu fie nevoita sa implementeze Directiva, punand-o posibil intr-o pozitie de avantaj concurential in gazduirea de platforme noi. 

Urmeaza vremuri interesante. 

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