Ecuador: Circular Informativa - Nuevas Modalidades de Contratacion de Personal

INTRODUCCIÓN

El 10 de Abril de 2018 el Ministro de Trabajo suscribió los siguientes Acuerdos Ministeriales que introducen al ordenamiento jurídico ecuatoriano Nuevas Modalidades Contractuales en el sector Bananero, florícola y Turístico:

  1. Acuerdo Ministerial No. MDT-2018-0073 (Sector Turístico)
  2. Acuerdo Ministerial No. MDT-2018-0074 (Sector Bananero)
  3. Acuerdo Ministerial No. MDT-2018-0075 (Sector Florícola)

A continuación se analizará cada una de las nuevas modalidades contractuales, en la industria que se puede aplicar.

REGULACIONES COMUNES A LOS TRES SECTORES:

  1. Se introducen al ordenamiento jurídico estas nuevas modalidades contractuales conforme a los principios de la realidad, la costumbre y el carácter especial de las labores que se desempeñan en estos sectores. Se le dota una mayor formalidad a este tipo de contrataciones, al no existir anteriormente un modelo contractual que se adecue a las necesidades especiales de estos sectores, el contrato debe ser obligatoriamente inscrito en la plataforma informática del Ministerio de Trabajo.
  2. Otra regulación importante de estos TRES (3) acuerdos ministeriales es la obligación contenida en el artículo 7, el trabajador debe señalar obligatoriamente un medio electrónico para futuras notificaciones, en caso de no tener uno debe ser notificado en el lugar de domicilio señalado en el contrato; en caso de no lograr comunicarse con el trabajador se lo notificará mediante un medio radial local.
  3. Forma de Pago: En estas modalidades contractuales se puede pactar la forma de pago de la remuneración, es decir diariamente, semanal, quincenal o mensualmente, conforme a las necesidades del trabajo a ser realizado, el sector específico y la regularidad del trabajo.
  4. Descanso: Los periodos de descanso podrán ser fijados entre el trabajador y el empleador siempre y cuando sean suficientes para preservar la salud y seguridad de los trabajadores de cada sector.

    Los horarios especiales en estos contratos de trabajo deben ser aprobados por el Ministerio de Trabajo.
  5. La décima tercera, décima cuarta remuneración y vacaciones serán pagadas proporcionalmente conforme el artículo 16 de dicha norma.
  6. Se establece un recargo del 15% al valor de la hora calculada. Para el pago de Horas suplementarias y Extraordinarias se establecen los siguientes recargos:

    • Suplementarias: Recargo 50%
    • Extraordinarias: Recargo: 100%
    • Sábados y Domingos horas dentro del horario especial aprobado: recargo adicional 25%
    • Sábados y Domingos no incluidas en horarios especiales aprobados: 100% de recargo
  7. Constancia de Finiquito: Se introduce un nuevo documento la "Constancia de Finiquito", debido a la naturaleza de estos contratos imprevisibles, variables, estacionales y eventuales, se crea este documento para que el empleador detalle los haberes cancelados al trabajador y suspender la relación laboral hasta el siguiente llamado, el mismo que debe ser registrado de forma obligatoria en la Página Web institucional del Ministerio de Trabajo.

    Su finalidad es suspender provisionalmente el vínculo laboral con la seguridad para ambas partes detallando los valores cancelados, de esta forma diferenciándose del acta de finiquito que pone fin definitivo a la relación laboral.

NUEVAS MODALIDADES CONTRACTUALES EN EL SECTOR TURÍSTICO

El Acuerdo Ministerial No. MDT-2018-0073, introduce DOS (2) nuevas modalidades de contrato de trabajo: "Especial por Evento a Jornada Parcial Discontinua para el Sector Turístico" y "Especial Permanente a Jornada Especial Completa en el Sector Turístico."

Estas nuevas modalidades contractuales únicamente pueden ser utilizadas en el sector turístico en sus actividades propias: alojamiento, alimentos y bebidas; y reuniones, incentivos, congresos y eventos o RICE, en el caso de eventos ( Se entiende por las actividades especiales propias del giro del negocio turístico y que obedecen a circunstancias imprevisibles, variables o estacionales, que no dependen de la voluntad de las partes); operación e intermediación turística, transporte turístico y otras actividades turísticas. No pueden ser aplicadas estas modalidades contractuales al personal meramente administrativo del sector turístico.

  1. Especial por Evento a Jornada Parcial Discontinua para el Sector Turístico

    • Duración: Por el tiempo que duren los eventos contratados
    • El empleador PODRA convocar nuevamente al mismo trabajador con el cual celebró el contrato
    • Llevar el empleador un registro de todos los trabajadores empleándose en cada evento
    • Jornada de Trabajo: hasta TREINTA Y SEIS (36) horas semanales, distribuidas en hasta SEIS (6) días a la semana, y sin superar las OCHO (8) horas diarias.
  2. Especial Permanente a Jornada Especial Completa en el Sector Turístico

    • Duración: Indefinido, con un periodo de prueba de NOVENTA (90) días
    • Jornada de Trabajo: hasta CUARENTA (40) horas semanales, distribuidas en hasta SEIS (6) días a la semana, y sin superar las OCHO (8) horas diarias.
    • El trabajador recibirá el proporcional por concepto de fondos de reserva a partir del mes TRECE (13) a partir de la vigencia del contrato y previo acuerdo de las partes.

NUEVAS MODALIDADES CONTRACTUALES EN EL SECTOR BANANERO

El Acuerdo Ministerial No. MDT-2018-0074, introduce una nueva modalidad de contrato de trabajo: "Especial Discontinuo a Jornada Parcial para el Sector Bananero".

Esta nueva modalidad contractual únicamente puede ser utilizada para las actividades propias del sector bananero como son la siembra, cosecha, corte, y empaque.

Con el fin de garantizar la estabilidad laboral, el trabajador debe mantener un registro del número de empleados contratados en cada ciclo y actividad bananera, y deberá llamar al mismo trabajador para el siguiente ciclo, caso contrario incurre en despido intempestivo y debe pagar indemnizaciones.

En caso de que el trabajador no acudiere al llamado, podrá ser sustituido por otro una vez que se haya solicitado el visto bueno ante el inspector del trabajo.

  • Jornada de Trabajo: hasta TREINTA Y SEIS (36) horas semanales, distribuidas en hasta SEIS (6) días a la semana, y sin superar las OCHO (8) horas diarias.
  • Duración: Termina la relación laboral una vez que termine el ciclo que género la actividad especial.

NUEVAS MODALIDADES CONTRACTUALES EN EL SECTOR FLORICOLA

El Acuerdo Ministerial No. MDT-2018-0075, introduce DOS (2) nuevas modalidades de contrato de trabajo: "Especial Permanente a Jornada Completa" y "Especial discontinuo a Jornada Parcial."

  1. Especial Permanente a Jornada Completa

    • Duración: Indefinido, con periodo de prueba de NOVENTA (90) días, mientras dure la actividad extraordinaria a realizarse
    • Jornada de Trabajo: hasta CUARENTA (40) horas semanales, distribuidas en hasta SEIS (6) días a la semana, y sin superar las OCHO (8) horas diarias
    • Proporcional Fondos de reserva a partir del TRECEAVO (13) mes
  2. Especial discontinuo a Jornada Parcial

    • Por el tiempo que dure la actividad a realizarse
    • De común acuerdo entre empleador y trabajador, se acordará los días o meses que prestará sus servicios
    • Una vez que se concluya el ciclo por el cual fue contratado se suspende la relación laboral hasta el inicio del siguiente ciclo productivo.
    • Empleador convocará obligatoriamente al trabajador al siguiente ciclo caso contrario incurre en despido intempestivo.
    • Si el trabajador no acude al llamado de su empleador, podrá ser sustituido por otro, realizando la solicitud de visto bueno ante el inspector del trabajo.
    • Jornada de Trabajo: hasta TREINTA Y SEIS (36) horas semanales, distribuidas en hasta SEIS (6) días a la semana, y sin superar las OCHO (8) horas diarias.

CONCLUSIONES:

  1. Estas nuevas formas de contratación buscan dar una mayor agilidad y flexibilidad al empresario de estos sectores en temas de contratación debido a la naturaleza eventual, cíclica y estacional de estas industrias.
  2. La figura del despido intempestivo, visto bueno y obligación de contratar al mismo trabajador no está contemplado en las DOS (2) nuevas modalidades laborales contractuales en el sector turístico
  3. Estas nuevas modalidades contractuales UNICAMENTE pueden ser usadas para nuevas contrataciones con el fin de garantizar la estabilidad laboral
  4. Estos acuerdos Ministeriales entrarán en vigencia a partir de su publicación en el Registro Oficial.

Confiamos que este circular informativo sea de utilidad y en el evento de que se requiera ampliar la información o analizar algún punto específico, estaremos gustosos en brindarle la asesoría necesaria.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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