United States: Landlords, Vendors, And Trade Creditors Beware: Protecting Your Interests During A Retail Meltdown

Last Updated: July 4 2017
Article by Richard Costella

As cautioned in my recently co-authored article, "The Future Isn't Promising for Retailers", that appeared in the Baltimore Business Journal on March 10, 2017, the retail sector may be primed to see numerous more going out of business sales as the shakeup in traditional "bricks and mortar" retailing continues unabated. With brands such as Gymboree, Ann Taylor, Payless Shoes, and other household names making headlines for their bankruptcy filings, store closings, and restructurings, it is critical that landlords and trade creditors doing business in the retail sector protect their interests long before any bankruptcy filing. Specifically, landlords and vendors can protect themselves from their tenant and customers' potential insolvency issues by taking various, fairly simple, actions:

  1. Know your customer/tenant. Know the tenant's or customer's business and business plan before granting any credit, including but not limited to knowing how the tenant's or customers' business is financed. Vendors should also evaluate the amount of financing/debt carried by the customer in relation to the total amount of trade credit and capital invested in the business. Moreover, the relationship should be formalized in written documents such as credit applications and credit agreements. Request trade and bank references, as well as reports from one of the many providers of international and U.S. business credit information and credit reports (i.e., Dun & Bradstreet). Any refusal or hesitancy to provide references should be viewed with suspicion.
  2. Monitor your customer relationships and know the early warning signs of distress. These early warning signs often lead to future payment problems that will need to be promptly addressed by the vigilant landlord and trade creditor. Although the following list is not exhaustive, it does contain many of the early warning signs that landlords and trade creditors should be aware of such as: (i) continually dishonored check(s); (ii) customer issuing post-dated checks; (iii) customer changing payment patterns; i.e. , customer begins paying outside of terms agreed to by the parties; (iv) customer experiencing reduced or low stock levels; and (v) stories or rumors about your customer or tenant that are circulating in the industry. Keep your eyes and ears open and talk to others in the industry about your customer!
  3. Become a secured creditor. Secured creditors enjoy an advantage over unsecured creditors in the event that a customer files for bankruptcy protection, as well as when the customer is delinquent. One of the more effective ways to ensure that you are a secured creditor in the event a customer defaults on its accounts is to insist that the customer grant you a Purchase Money Security Interest ("PMSI") in the goods sold pursuant to Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code (the "UCC"). Article 9 of the UCC, which has been enacted in some form in all fifty U.S. states, governs the perfection and priority of competing creditors on personal property. More particularly, Article 9 of the UCC establishes a scheme that provides maximum protection to the trade creditor who has followed the applicable provisions of Article 9, while also providing a predictable system of creditor priorities.
  4. Consider consignments. The consigning of goods to customers is another manner in which you can protect yourself against defaulting customers and ensure payment of your invoices (or the return of your goods). The protections afforded by a consignment of goods, as well as the methods for perfecting your security interest in consigned goods, are similar to those present when utilizing a PMSI, except there is no actual sale of the goods to the customer. Instead, the goods are, in essence, loaned to the customer and, as the goods are sold or used, the customer pays for what is used or sold. If the debtor defaults in payment for the goods, you are entitled to foreclose on the goods in the same manner that a secured creditor would foreclose.
  5. Insist on COD or PIA. One of the best (and probably most obvious) methods to ensure payment on your invoices is to require the customer to pay cash on delivery ("COD") or make payments in advance of shipping ("PIA"). When it appears that a customer may be having financial difficulties and is heading for bankruptcy, the use of COD and PIA can also help minimize the prospects of being sued later for a preferential payment in the customer's bankruptcy matter.1
  6. Use of Letters of Credit. Letters of credit are another way to ensure that timely payment is made on the trade credit you extend to your customers. A letter of credit is a document issued by your customer's bank that essentially acts as a guarantee of payment to you as the beneficiary under the letter of credit. Specifically, the issuance of a letter of credit for your benefit means that if your customer does not timely pay your invoices, the bank issuing the letter of credit steps in and pays the open invoices.


1. Other than to note that in some circumstance a vendor can be sued for payments received from its customer within the ninety (90) days prior to a bankruptcy filing, the concept of preferential payments is beyond the scope of this blog.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


From time to time Mondaq may send you emails promoting Mondaq services including new services. You may opt out of receiving such emails by clicking below.

*** If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here .


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.