United States: When It Comes To Games, The Practical Limit To United States Copyright Protection May Only Be Skin Deep

Last Updated: May 5 2017
Article by Sean F. Kane

Sean F. Kane is co-Chair of the Interactive Entertainment Group at Frankfurt Kurnit. He has worked at the forefront of the interactive entertainment industry for the past decade and has represented clients on transactional matters involving various business segments, such as console and PC video games, virtual worlds, eSports, online gaming, social gaming, mobile and tablet gaming, virtual currency and mobile apps. Mr. Kane regularly advises clients on licensing, co-branding, consulting, advertising, content monetizing, publishing and distribution transactions. Mr. Kane is a frequent speaker and writer on video game issues and has been quoted widely by the media.

Copyright claims based on alleged similarities between video games ("clones") are as old as the industry itself. While video games, like other creative works, may receive some level of protection, not all elements of a game are protectable. Abstract ideas, including game mechanics and rules, as well as functional and scenes a faire elements, are not entitled to copyright protection under current United States law. Only expressive elements are protectable. For courts, this distinction can sometimes be only skin deep, and whether or not a clone faces liability frequently turns on whether the second developer takes the time to create a new visual design for a game.

This article briefly reviews the US law behind game cloning and copyright law, and highlights the importance that visual design and aesthetics play in whether allegations of cloning translate into actual liability.

Rules for publishing game in Iran

The scope of copyright protection enjoyed by video games is narrower than many realize. As the Copyright Office has explained in stark terms: "[c]opyright does not protect the idea for a game, its name or title, or the method or methods for playing it. . . . Once a game has been made public, nothing in the copyright law prevents others from developing another game based on similar principles." This is the much-discussed "idea-expression dichotomy," and while it is an easy principle to state, it is much harder to consistently apply in practice.

Applying this theory to games, Courts have held a wide array of game features are entitled to little or no copyright protection, including:

  • Instructions, including dialogue boxes, tool tips, game instructions and arrow indicators.
  • Game Rules and Mechanics, including all of the "rules and procedures, including the winning procedures" that operate and animate gameplay.
  • Game Board Design, such as the use of a six-by-six grid in a "match-three" puzzle game.
  • Scoring or Point Systems, which track player performance, as well as the method of using points or coins to reward players and allow the purchase of power-ups.

Courts have also been unwilling to find copyright protection in common game tropes, so-called "scenes a faire" elements, which define certain types of genres. For example, when the owners of the iconic Dawn of the Dead film sued Capcom over its game, Dead Rising, a California federal court concluded that the movie and game setting – a suburban mall – and both work's portrayal of characters using improvised weapons to fight zombies were unprotectable, generic elements of a zombie survival horror story. Others examples include basic martial arts moves in fighting games, or the stock fantasy trappings of "sword and sorcery" epic adventure, including wizards, elves and dwarves.

So what game elements can be protected by copyright? Often, courts focus on the most obvious creative aspects of a game — its visual appearance, and the unique aspects of a game's characters. The visual design of a game, particularly where the game is abstract or fanciful, is protected. The design of even simple games, like Tetris, are eligible for protection: "the style, design, shape and movement of [Tetris] pieces are expression." Similarly, other courts have held that the unique, progressive matching hierarchy in Triple Town, and the colorful design of Breakout are creative choices that enjoy copyright protection.

Characters are eligible for protection when they are uniquely recognizable, either because they are genuinely novel (like Pacman) or because a work takes stock characters and elevates them above the tropes of the genre to become icons, such as Chun Li, Ken and Lt. Guile from Street Fighter. And, once a character reaches that status, creative aspects of that character's personality or appearance, like Lt. Guile's unique "sonic boom" attack, are also entitled to protection.

A Tale of Two Clones

Two relatively recent cases reinforce the difference between copying unprotectable ideas and rules, and copying protected expression: Tetris Holdings, LLC v. Xio Interactive, Inc., 863 F.Supp.2d 394, 410 (D.N.J. 2012), and DaVinci Editrice S.R.L. v. Ziko Games, LLC, 183 F. Supp. 3d. 820 (S.D. Tex. 2016). While both cases involve arguably the wholesale appropriation of a preexisting game's rules, the former also took the visual aesthetic and was likely infringing, whereas the latter re-skinned the game's rules with a new theme and escaped liability.

Tetris Holdings, LLC v. Xio Interactive, Inc.

In Tetris, the developer of a game called Mino was alleged to have infringed Tetris by copying substantially all aspects of the famed puzzle game. In defending against Tetris's claim, Xio admitted to downloading a copy of Tetris and creating what amounted to a "clone" of the game, but claimed that it had taken steps to only copy the non-protectable elements of Tetris. These steps even included obtaining an opinion from legal counsel. Xio alleged it had not infringed Tetris because Mino only copied "rules, function and expression" which were "essential to the gameplay" but which did not constitute original protectable expression. In short, Xio relied on the argument that the rules of Tetris were inseparable from the expression, and so to the extent that the games looked alike, it was due to the fact they operated on the same rules.

The court rejected this argument out of hand, finding that Xio had done more than just incorporate Tetris' underlying rules. For the court, the fact that Xio had appropriated the visual design of Tetris was significant, and it spent significant time looking at the similarity of the look and feel of the two games, stating that "[t]here is such similarity between the visual expression of Tetris and Mino that it is akin to literal copying" regardless of the fact that Xio did not actually copy the underlying Tetris code. The court contrasted Mino with another Tetrisinspired game, Dr. Mario, to demonstrate how a developer can remix game concepts and ideas without appropriating protected visual elements. The court took pains to note that, in Mino, "the style of the pieces is nearly indistinguishable, both in their look and in the manner they move, rotate, fall, and behave. Similar bright colors are used in each program, the pieces are composed of individually delineated bricks, each brick is given an interior border to suggest texture, and shading and gradation of color are used in substantially similar ways to suggest light is being cast onto the pieces." The court described other problematic similarities between Tetris and Mino such as the game board dimensions, the manner in pieces are displayed, and the appearance of the completed game board. The Court found that the movements of the blocks in Tetris were not merely functional, but expressions associated with those elements.

DaVinci Editrice S.R.L. v. Ziko Games, LLC

DaVinci arose out of allegations that Ziko had cloned DaVinci's popular card game, Bang!, while only tweaking the game's aesthetic so that it took place in an ancient Chinese martial-arts setting instead of the Old West. The parties agreed that each games' rules were nearly identical, and much of the litigation focused on whether the allegedly unique characters in Bang! (the "Sheriff," "Deputy, "Outlaw" and "Renegade") were infringed by Ziko's versions ("Monarch," "Minister," "Rebel," and "Turncoat").

At the motion to dismiss stage, the court let DaVinci's claims survive, finding that the in-game characters' capabilities were part of their attributes and traits, and therefore could be protectable along with their names and visual design. Examining the "totality of the characters' attributes and traits," the court concluded a "reasonable factfinder" could conclude the games were similar, despite the fact that one was set in a Wild-West theme, whereas the other was set in ancient China.

Ultimately, however, Ziko prevailed at the summary judgement stage because it was able to show that the alleged infringement — the relationship among the various in-game characters — was a function of rules and not expressive narrative content. The court was swayed by the fact that Ziko's game had featured starkly different visual elements and character design, and different kinds of special powers (even if they did function identically within the rules of the game). Moreover, the court thought it significant that DaVinci's characters and special abilities were not connected to an overarching narrative, and had no set role or relationship in any playthrough of the game. "Unlike a book or movie plot, the rules and procedures, including the winning conditions, that make up a card-game system of play do not themselves produce the artistic or literary content that is the hallmark of protectable expression . . . Instead, the game rules, procedures, and winning conditions create the environment for expression." Absent the appropriation of a defined character relationship, roughly analogous to a movie plot, the court was skeptical that there could be infringement.

In the end, the court found that the special abilities did not create expressive, protected character interaction, writing that "[t]he events in a Bang! game are not predetermined because the interactions between the roles have no underlying script or detail and are not fixed. Making certain roles aligned with and others opposed is part of the game's winning conditions, but these determine little about how players progress through the game." And, as a result, the court dismissed the case and granted judgement in favor of Ziko.


Beyond highlighting the weight that courts give to visual elements and character design, these cases hold lessons for developers looking to ensure that their works are protected, and for others looking to capitalize on a genre growing in popularity. For the former, it's not enough to develop an innovative new set of rules for a game. If a game is to enjoy robust copyright protection, those rules must be connected with expressive, creative visual elements and strong developed characters that set the game apart from those that might follow-on. For second-mover developers, it is important not to cut corners and not take the time to create an independent visual aesthetic that sets a game apart from the earlier games that inspired it. Indeed, building on the court's comments in Tetris, it is better to take inspiration from games like Dr. Mario and combine new designs and new gameplay elements rather than lean entirely on a re-skin of what has come before.


This alert provides general coverage of its subject area. We provide it with the understanding that Frankfurt Kurnit Klein & Selz is not engaged herein in rendering legal advice, and shall not be liable for any damages resulting from any error, inaccuracy, or omission. Our attorneys practice law only in jurisdictions in which they are properly authorized to do so. We do not seek to represent clients in other jurisdictions.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (UK) LLP
In association with
Related Topics
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (UK) LLP
Related Articles
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions