UK: Technology Predictions - TMT Trends 2007 - Part Two

Last Updated: 18 January 2007
Article by Igal Brightman

To read Part One of this article please Click Here

The rising cost of free technology

Offering services for free has become a mainstay of the technology industry, and a marketing tool of choice for growing market share. But free offers may become increasingly costly, both to suppliers and consumers, during the course of 2007.

Free services and applications already have a great deal to answer for. Spam is expected to represent over 95 percent of all emails sent in 200655 – over 60 billion messages each day56. For many, Spam not only represents a painful nuisance, but may also ultimately represent the death of email as we know it if the volume of Spam becomes untenable57. Free email also allows viruses, worms, spyware and other malicious code to be carried gratis to millions of unwitting recipients. Free though the service may be, it is estimated to have cost consumers some $7.8 billion to repair or replace infected PCs during 2005 and 200658. By contrast, paid-for SMS services, on which consumers spent over $185 billion in 2006 alone59, were relatively junk-free, most likely because the economics of Spam simply do not work in such a highly commercial setting.

IM has suffered a similar fate. Spam via IM platforms, sometimes referred to as Spim, is growing in line with the increasing popularity of IM generally. There are now over 80 million users of free IM platforms on the Web60, and between them, they endured over 1.2 billion Spim messages in 200661. The average IM user can expect to be interrupted with instant junk messages about five times a day, and those interruptions are likely to grow to 27 times a day by 200862. Between five and eight percent of the messages received by corporate IM users, who are growing rapidly in number, are classified as Spim. This disrupts work, reduces productivity and increases the risk of infection from viruses, which can also be carried via IM63.

The cost of free Internet VoIP services is also rising. Not only are consumers increasingly aware that free VoIP is only as free as the cost of a broadband connection and the termination charges associated with off-net calls, but also, they are becoming increasingly annoyed by the voice version of Spam and Spim, charmingly referred to as Spit. With Spit, spammers turn to VoIP systems to send thousands of voice messages, selling the usual raft of questionable products and services, to unsuspecting users64.

Similarly, Open Source software is perceived to be free. But when the cost of installation, maintenance and customization are factored in, the total cost of ownership can in fact be substantial. And if something goes wrong with an Open Source solution that is based upon the contributions of many small companies, the collective suppliers may have too little capital to be able either to engineer their way out of the problem, or to pay compensation.

2007, therefore, is likely to see growing skepticism with regard to the ‘free’ offer. And perhaps more importantly, the year may also see consumers and enterprise customers expressing a growing willingness to pay for services, in return for solutions that insulate them from the perils of the free-technology world. Rising to this challenge could become a key focus for technology companies in the coming year.

Bottom line

While the lure of free offers can be appropriate, for example for nascent products and services looking to build traction, the industry should be wary of making consumers increasingly cynical, or, indeed of, permitting the cynical to subvert an application, as has happened with email in the form of Spam.

Technology companies should not assume that customers are focused only on price. Quality can also be very persuasive; useful features can generate premium revenues.

For example, there is a growing market for paid-for email solutions that include advanced Spam filtering, virus protection and quarantine functions, delivery guarantees and end-to-end encryption. By creating different tiers of such services, it may even be possible to persuade regular consumers to pay a modest premium to secure their communications and to guarantee an arrival time65. In the voice market there is potentially enormous value to be created through the development of premium services that exploit the superior capabilities of VoIP, in terms of quality and fidelity, as well as protecting users from Spim and other threats.

Many consumers and business users have come to realize that free rarely means free, and more often than not, free involves making a number of uncomfortable compromises. Indeed, the discomfort associated with these compromises can be turned into revenue.

The regional carousel with a global impact

Tax leakage is a problem for every exchequer. But Europe’s tax losses from carousel fraud are so vast (as much as $66.6 billion a year), that its ramifications in 2007 are likely to be global66. Every technology company operating within or selling into the European community may have to alter its supply chain, adjust transportation logistics and review delivery methodologies in response to new legislation introduced by state governments within the European Union to suppress carousel fraud.

Carousel fraud – or MTIC – is based around the theft of VAT payments claimed from national governments. It exists in the European Union as exporters are able to claim VAT refunds while importers are responsible for collecting VAT from their customers and passing this on to the tax authority. Fraudsters collect refunds while holding onto VAT owed to the government.

This is known as carousel fraud as the same goods are often repeatedly exported, sometimes circling between the same two countries. Technological products such as semiconductors and mobile phones are the favored goods in carousel fraud due to their high value. A vanload can be worth hundreds of thousands of dollars. At a national level, the impact of carousel fraud has been immense. It is estimated to represent 10 percent of the United Kingdom’s exports and as much as $9.8 billion in tax losses67; it also represents two percent of Germany’s VAT68.

The 25 member states of the European Union are expected to introduce country-specific legislation designed to counter carousel fraud in 2007. This follows the introduction of new laws in one or two European nations in 2006.

These measures are likely to present several challenges for technology companies. The laws may not be uniform. The scope of goods affected by legislation could vary by country. For example, Latvia’s derogation was requested only for timber. Other countries may not follow suit. The taxable status of goods may vary according to the type of sale. Business-to-business transactions may be free of VAT; whereas the same product would probably be sold to a consumer with VAT added on.

Bottom line

Any technology company selling into Europe should keep aware of legislative developments in the European Union around carousel fraud. Technology companies that sell into or manufacture within European borders see many attractions in this market. Management should formulate strategies for combating carousel fraud if they are to continue to reap the benefits of trading in this region.

As legislation is likely to vary by country, technology companies should set up teams to track variations in approach, scope and timing. Firms should also consider upgrading ERP systems to be able to deal with the likely variable taxable status of their goods.

Technology companies may also consider taking steps, in conjunction with the European VAT authorities, to reduce the potential for carousel fraud. For example, companies could introduce safeguards, such as secure RFID tags, that would provide unique identifiers for any consignment of technology, thus making its import and export more difficult. Any such move would best be undertaken in a co-ordinated manner to ensure that similar RFID standards were being used in all countries.

History predicts technology’s future

This year, as in most years past, many companies will invest considerable time and money seeking out the next hot technology. The reality, however, is that the technologies that are likely to grab tomorrow’s headlines may well already exist today. Indeed these technologies may have existed, albeit in a less mature format, for many years.

In general, technology changes little within a year. But cumulative changes over the course of a few years can be fundamental. The majority of today’s most significant technologies, from wireless networking to solid-state storage, have been evolving for a decade, at the very least.

For example, the first recorded wireless transmission, by Nikola Tesla69, took place at the end of the 19th Century. At the start of the 21st Century, wireless technologies are still evolving and are likely to continue so for many years to come. The same can be said of packet transmission, the foundation of the Internet; and processors, the engines of technology.

Importantly, some of the most fundamental innovations in technology may have little to do with the technology itself. Combinations of technologies are often more powerful than single technologies and innovations on their own. The MP3 player is the combination of compression technology, digital memory, and processors. Each of these has existed independently for decades; however it was not until a few years ago that the maturity of each represented a persuasive combination that was ripe for commercialization.

Similarly, technological context will likely play an important role. 2007 may see the emergence of apparently brand new technologybased products and services, when all that has changed, in fact, is their technical setting and perhaps branding. Social networking, one of the most talked about new media phenomena of 2006, has been going on for many years, ever since the Internet existed. Social networking evolved from Internet-based communities of interest called Usenets70 and was originally dominated by technology aficionados, a group that would generally be regarded as being on the wrong side of fashionable. But with the growth in broadband penetration, as well as digital cameras and higher performance processors, Usenets have evolved into social networking, a massmarket, leisure and entertainment activity.

Bottom line

Technology companies, entrepreneurs and financiers looking for the next big technology should, among other activities, track the evolution of existing and fundamental technologies, and consider what could come out of combinations of these. Creativity and co-operation are likely to be key. Many of the technologies that form fundamental components of today’s mass-market products were originally developed by the academic community, and their commercial potential was not often widely explored. MP3 technology is a good example, having originally been developed as part of an EU-funded project examining the technologies required to deliver DAB. Its full potential was not realized until technology companies worked with academic partners and applied it within an altogether different context - the Internet.

The process of combining technologies should be driven by consumer needs. Companies should look for unsatisfied consumer demand and see how existing or underexploited technologies can fill the gap, rather than experimenting with combinations in a vacuum. It could be all too easy to create contrived and irrelevant products, driven only by the capabilities of technologies and engineers’ whims. To keep such activities focused, sales and marketing teams should play a key role.

Technology’s social network dividend

Social networks are a reinvented form of the bulletin board, a previously unfashionable form of Web-based communication much loved by the technology and scientific communities. The original bulletin boards served as a means for professionals and enthusiasts to exchange ideas and request help on projects. Though their use was niche, the impact of bulletin boards was significant. Much of today’s software is founded on the ideas and exchanges posted on bulletin boards.

But the bulletin board was not designed as a commercial endeavor. So it is perhaps ironic that 2007 should see the youth-oriented, headline-hogging, rebranded bulletin board offer a significant commercial opportunity to the technology sector, under the guise of social networking.

Social networking has been a major success. It has generated hundreds of millions of dollars in both realized71 and perceived value72. In 2007, its value may be measurable in billions of dollars. But such success creates challenges, which technology companies should be well positioned to address through 2007 and beyond. One of the most significant challenges awaiting media companies is dealing appropriately with the posting of copyright-protected material on social networking sites. Unfortunately a proportion of content posted on these sites has effectively been stolen from media companies. Until now, media companies have tended not to litigate against social networking sites for infringement as in many cases there was too little capital for which to sue73. However in 2007 the rising value of social networking companies, or the substantial capital of the parent corporations that own them, may make social networks worth pursuing74. Technological solutions may provide the answer to this problem. Technology that can search through all uploaded content, including the copyrighted music that accompanies user-generated video, is perhaps the only solution for reducing the risk of litigation through searching, identifying and removing copyright material75.

Doing so may also help social-networking companies preserve the integrity of their business models. Advertisers, likely to be one of the main components of the social networking business model, are unlikely to want their advertisement placed next to stolen content.

Technology companies may also be able to address another challenge of social networks’ success: the vast, rapidly growing quantity of content posted. Unlike the text-centered bulletin boards of yesterday, successful components of today’s social networks include the ability to post content quickly, a means of fast and broad distribution, to perhaps millions of users simultaneously, effective search tools and a simple and elegant user interface. All these challenges are likely to be compounded in 2007, as the volume of users and content continues to grow. All the uploaded content requires storage. While this is getting cheaper, there are multiple costs associated with digital storage: commissioning, maintaining, partitioning and housing. The accountants also need to be kept happy.

Social networking has enjoyed a rapid period of unrestricted growth, which is likely to continue into 2007. But the focus on coping with expansion has caused some social networks to overlook the need for efficiency, robustness and compliance. In 2007 social networks are likely to have to address these issues.

Bottom line

Helping social networking companies to mature, rapidly and rationally, could represent a substantial platform for growth for technology companies in 2007.

Social-networking companies face multiple challenges: They must cope with increasingly large volumes of content and become adept at identifying illicit material and duplicated content, while also serving advertisers. Inappropriate material includes not just that which infringes copyright, but also that which is racially offensive, sexually explicit or otherwise unsuitable.

Technology companies should also provide solutions that improve social networks’ ability to monetize their principal asset: millions of customer relationships. This could be achieved through a number of means. They could help to enhance the overall customer experience by providing faster uploading and more rapid and accurate description and coding of content. Chat, messaging, VoIP and other relevant applications could widen the appeal of the core offering, and deliver the potential for fee-generating services.

Accurate tracking of consumer behavior in response to advertising could increase a social network’s ability to sell spots. Advertisers are likely to appreciate technology that placed their adverts only next to appropriate content.

Finally, technology that could monitor the downloading of usergenerated content featuring copyrighted material would enable profit-sharing deals to be done with content owners.

Parasitic power to the people

One glance at any large city street, teeming with people ranging from college students to business professionals, explains why the volume of portable electronic devices in use in the world is increasing exponentially. But all devices, whether mobile phones, laptop computers or remote sensors, have one common, fundamental Achilles’ heel: their portable power supplies. Over $31 billion is spent every year on disposable dry-cell batteries76; $6 billion is spent on spare, rechargeable batteries; and over a billion rechargeable batteries are included with the sale of off-theshelf electronic devices.

This represents both a significant financial cost as well as a major environmental impact. A large proportion of the batteries used in consumer electronics products end up in landfill sites77, in spite of the fact that in many countries they are classified as hazardous waste. The trickle-charger supplied with most consumer electronics devices may seem innocuous: a mobile-phone charger consumes three watts, a fraction of the power consumption of a light bulb. But considering there are some two billion mobile phones in use and that a mains connected charger consumes power regardless of whether a device is connected or not, the full environmental impact of the trickle charger becomes apparent78.

While both disposable and rechargeable battery technologies have improved significantly in recent years, they have not kept up with Moore’s Law79, and progress in battery technology has steadily fallen behind the growing power and falling cost of processors. With the promise of the fuel cell still some way off, as well as the growing clamor for reductions in carbon footprints, technology companies may well start exploring alternative means of keeping devices powered.

One of the most interesting techniques likely to find favor in 2007 is power-scavenging. This involves devices that are able to generate energy from a variety of sources in their immediate environment including, sunlight, changes in temperature, vibration, motion, sounds and pressure. Power-scavenging technologies could transform the way we use consumer electronic devices. It could also make billions of remotely located, independently powered, telematic and sensing devices feasible, with a knock-on impact on the supply chain and other key processes.

Power-scavenging technologies are most actively being used at present in RFID tags and remote sensing technologies, as these small-scale devices have limited and often temporary80 power requirements. Parasitic power can make some applications feasible, such as remote temperature monitoring in forested regions, as it removes the need to replace batteries. Other applications that could be enabled via power-scavenging technology in 2007 include: supply-chain automation and monitoring, transportation and logistics management, military and civil surveillance, pipeline monitoring, healthcare and patient monitoring, as well as environment and wildlife tracking, among others.

In 2007 power-scavenging technologies may also start to find their way into consumer products. This would benefit both consumers, who should be able to make more extended use of their devices, and the environment.

While remaining primarily dependent on a regular rechargeable battery, a mobile phone incorporating power-scavenging technology could potentially last for much longer without a recharge, simply by accumulating battery charge as it is being carried around. Wristwatches already use the body’s kinetic energy to top up integrated batteries81. Ambient light could be used as another supplementary energy source.

Given consumers’ growing concerns about the environment, as well as their constant frustration with the battery-life of the products they use, power-scavenging could become an important new ingredient in the consumer electronics sector.

Bottom line

Power-scavenging technologies are not new. Some have been around for decades. Industrial-scale scavenging technologies such as wind turbines, solar panels and wave-power generators have become a credible means of supplementing coal-fired or nuclear power plants, and their use is growing rapidly. But 2007 is likely to see power-scavenging technologies used on a smaller scale, and with far wider implications.

The transformational impact of power scavenging is tantalizing and wide ranging. But technology companies should focus on using the technology to solve practical problems. The ability to deploy completely autonomous remote sensors could confer enormous benefits on just about every type of production system, from oil and gas through agriculture. Cost will likely be the most important factor. RFID has taken off much more slowly than anticipated because the price per tag has remained too high82. As the range and diversity of remote sensors grows, power scavenging should be used as a means of keeping the total cost of ownership and usage to a minimum.

In consumer markets, technology companies will most likely need to follow a similar approach to that of the auto industry, where hybrid power systems are becoming increasingly popular. The use of multiple scavenging technologies in combination with a regular rechargeable battery could extend autonomy substantially, and reduce overall operating costs. From piezoelectric energy converters replacing buttons and keys to kinetic energy converters embedded into any portable device, there is likely to be enormous scope for power-scavenging technologies, the use of which may even allow technology companies to charge a premium.

In parallel, technology companies should continue to invest in developing components and devices that are far less powerhungry. Progress is certainly being made, such as the move from hard disks to solid-state memory, the use of low-power processors and more efficient display technologies, such as OLED. But there is scope for much further improvement. Despecifying devices, by removing unused or unnecessary components could further help to reduce consumption, and may have the added benefits of reducing costs and making products easier for consumers to use.

Arise, the bionic human

Technology has had a fundamental influence on the human condition ever since our ancestors sharpened their first flints. Today technology remains at the forefront of the evolution of human existence.

In 2007, combinations of humans and technology are likely to be taken to new levels, addressing a widening range of applications, tasks and challenges. One of the most interesting applications of technology in 2007 may be the increasing enhancement of the human body using technology.

To an extent, this already happens, chiefly for medical purposes, with technology replacing failed or deficient body parts, such as hips or hearts.

But technology, enabled by many streams of research and development, may increasingly be used to improve upon the default body. For example, artificial exoskeletons could be used to provide super-human walking ability, with enhanced range, superior strength, or both83. Advances in materials, storage, energy technology and processing power are all key enablers of such an enhancement.

Technology is also likely to continue blurring the line between disabled and able-bodied athletes. 2007 could be the year in which disabled athletes, using prosthetics, are able to qualify for worldclass, athletics events, which have historically consisted solely of able-bodied athletes. Advances in human-neural interfaces and the availability of electronic knees, guided by microprocessors generating 1000 recalibrations a second, are allowing disabled athletes to approach record speeds84. In 2004, the best disabled athlete was only 2.5 seconds off what was then the world record speed of 19.32 seconds for the 200-meter sprint85.

Technology can also improve one of the body’s fundamentals – blood. Artificial red blood cells have already been designed; white blood cells are being developed. Artificial red blood cells, based on nanotechnology, could be up to 200 times more efficient than human blood cells at their core function: storing and releasing oxygen86. Indeed these may be so efficient that replacing just 10 percent of all red blood cells could allow people to hold their breath for hours87.

So in 2007, the erstwhile science fiction of the bionic man or woman may now become reality, although the underlying R&D may ultimately cost a little more than six million dollars.

Bottom line

To date, technology has done wonders for the human condition: extending life, curing diseases and enhancing quality of life. The human race is now at a crossroads where technology is advanced enough to not only save lives, but to modify and personalize the human body beyond pure medical reasons.

These developments are raising medical, ethical and religious questions. The use of technology to enhance the human is likely to evoke a wide range of reactions, ranging from unbridled excitement to terror88.

Like any new, cutting-edge technology, new companies are starting up, new business models are being created, and new opportunities are being explored. Naturally, new regulation may well also be required. 2007 is likely to witness only the start of the debate.

Governments and industry should actively and openly discuss the issue of enhancing the human being, with particular regard to both relevant precedents and potential consequences. How dissimilar, from an ethical perspective, is an enhanced heart to a surgically perfected nose? Could human-enhancing technological developments trigger an arms race, based around creating the perfect soldier? How would social security and welfare provisions have to change if average mortality rose to 150 years or more89? These, together with many other questions should be debated in open forums. At the same time, the general public should be kept informed and involved, to allow individuals to make rational and appropriate decisions.

2007 may be the year in which the origin of the species starts to depend less on the lumbering process of natural selection, and more on the rapid-fire innovations taking place in the world’s laboratories. The evolution of evolution may have begun.


1 For example see: Business Leader Backs Carbon Tax, ABC’s The World Today, 31 October 2006. and ‘Carbon Footprint’ Gaining Business Attention, Conference Board, 18 October 2006

2 Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, Her Majesty’s Treasury, 30 October 2006. For more information see: reviews/stern_review_economics_climate_change/sternreview_index.cfm

3 See: Rebuttal to Testimony on "Kyoto and the Internet: the Energy Implications of the Digital Economy", 2 February 2000

4 See:

5 First butter, now mobiles, Financial Times, 20 September 2006


7 Behold the server farm! Glorious temple of the information age! Fortune Magazine, 1 August 2006

8 Ibid

9 For more information see: _overview.html; for analysis, see: Cisco unveils telepresence push,, 23 October 2006

10 Recipe_for_Success.html

11 Now Google sets sights on solar system. All it’s searching for this time is a 1.6-megawatt power source that is simply out of this world, San Francisco Chronicle, 17 October 2006

12 As an example of one approach to making device energy consumption more visible, see: Bringing meters out of the closet, BBC News, 18 May 2006

13 For example see: Sun, Power Company to Offer Rebates on Servers, eWeek, 15 August 2006

14 For an example of the impact of the use of composite materials on fuel efficiency in aviation, see: 06memo.html

15 The rise of the green building, The Economist, 2 December 2004

16 Mobile Solution Helps Credit Hire Car Service Eliminate 120,000 paper forms a month, Microsoft. In this example, fuel consumption for 500 drivers fell by 2.5 million miles per year.

17 Consumers struggle with tech, CRN, 9 March 2006

18 Ibid

19 A fast rate of return, Christian Science Monitor, 15 May 2006

20 Humanizing the digital experience, Forrester Research Inc, 20 November 2006

21 Thanks To Active Safety Systems, You Won’t Buy It If You Don’t Brake, Electronic Design, 6 November 2006

22 The Nintendo Wii digital gaming console uses a controller that employs motion sensors as the primary input for gameplay, as opposed to buttons. See: Nintendo Wii, ABC News, 13 November 2006

23 Smarter than your average pushbutton, Machine Design, 6 July 2006

24 The voice business market outlook, Business Insights, January 2006

25 High-End, Voice-Enabled Tech from IBM Powers Pioneer Navigation Systems for Most Cars,, 25 October 2006

26 Voice recognition coming to TV, CNET News, 16 February 2006

27 Apple’s ‘touchless’ touchscreen iPod revealed, Mac Daily News, 25 July 2006

28 We’re all Mac users now, Wired, 6 January 2004

29 Voice – a vision of the future, Ovum, 16 March 2006

30 In mobility wars, wireless providers believe simpler is better, Associated Press, 18 May 2006

31 See interview with Rich Miner, Convergence Conversations, DTT, November 2006

32 Unique research about the sending of messages and T9 by cell phone is presented at Futurecom 2006,, 3 October 2006

33 Best Buy’s Geek Squad Optimizing in 2007, Forbes, 13 March 2006

34 As an example, over the course of the year though October 2006, the cost of a one gigabyte compact flash card has fallen from about $50 to as little as $10 with rebate. Back up photos on the road, Macworld, October 2006

35 Don’t keep all your data in one stash, New York Times, 7 September 2006

36 Storage: An editorial, The Online Photographer, 15 June 2006

37 Preserving your digital data requires high and low-tech solutions, USA Today, 30 January 2004

38 The legal danger lurking in the server, Financial Times, 9 November 2006

39 The Info Pro Storage Study Wave 8, The Info Pro, 13 October 2006

40 Don’t keep all your data in one stash, New York Times, 7 September 2006

41 Technology Watch Report: the large-scale archival storage of digital objects, Digital Preservation Coalition, February 2005

42 Ibid

43 Ibid

44 Don’t lose your business to criminals, Silicon Republic, 24 August 2006

45 Mobile stolen every 12 seconds, The Guardian, 16 May 2006

46 ID theft losses rising, Red Herring, 4 May 2006

47 Nationwide survey on fingerprint biometrics, Mobility Today, 8 December 2004 48 For information on biometric ATMs, see:

49 See:

50 For example see: US imposes biometric entry demand, BBC news, 26 October 2006

51 See: Germany to phase-in biometric passports from November 2005 , IDABC,

52 How to hack biometrics, The Inquirer, 30 July 2005

53 Biometrics firms seek to foil fraudsters, CNET, 22 June 2006

54 Facing biometrics’ limits, CNET, June 22, 2006 and Can biometrics move beyond borders? CNET, 25 October 2005

55 Spam approaches 95 percent of all email,, 7 September 2005

56 60 billion emails each day – much of it spam, MSNBC, 25 April 2006

57 The death of email? Consumer Affairs, 27 July 2006

58 Viruses, Spyware cost users $7.8 billion, Washington Post, 8 August 2006

59 According to Insight Research, global mobile service revenues were expected to be $1.24 trillion in 2006. SMS represents approximately 15 percent of service revenues, which equates to $186 billion. See – Mobile math for marketers, Global Technology Forum, 3 October 2006

60 Single Ajax interface for Yahoo mail and IM coming, TechCrunch, 9 November 2006

61 Corporate Spim is no LOL matter, Newsweek, 9 May 2006

62 Ibid

63 Tired of Spam? Now There’s Spim & Spit, Too, Office Space, May 2005, Vol.3 Issue 5, Pages 26-28 in print issue

64 VoIP Security Threats, PC Security News, 30 January 2006

65 Price of Free Internet Mail Might Be Too Costly, Ecommerce Times, 27 January 2006

66 VAT fraud costing Europe €50 billion a year, The Guardian, 11 July 2006

67 VAT villains a threat to Brown’s prudence, The Guardian, 14 August 2006

68 Carousel fraud squad poised for arrests, Financial Times, 28 August 2006

69 Source: customWidgets.content_view_1

70 Usenets (User Networks) were invented by graduate students Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis at Duke University in 1979. In their first iteration, Usenets were simple bulletin boards to which users submitted articles, often limited to 60,000 characters in length, via email. Typically their content was scientific and academic, rather than social.

71 Google’s Young Partner, The Economist, 10 October 2006

72 Ibid. See also Social networking fuels new Web boom, CNN, 3 October 2006

73 Could Copyright Fight Strip YouTube of Future Content? ABC News, 30 October 2006

74 Wag of the finger at YouTube, Chicago Sun-Times, 31 October 2006

75 MySpace to install copyright software for music, Financial Times, 31 October 2006

76 The Power of Small Tech, Small Times –

77 lbid

78 Beware of Vampire Appliances, ElectricNet, 12 June 2000

79 See interview with Jim Balsillie, Convergence Conversations, DTT, November 2006

80 Most do not require constant power

81 See Parasitic Power Harvesting in Shoes, Physics and Media Group, MIT, August 1998

82 Benefits from RFID not matching hype, Chicago Business, 18 July 2005

83 For more information see: and Artificial exoskeleton takes the strain, New Scientist, 5 March 2004

84 Building a better leg: The technology of 21st-Century prosthetics, IEEE Spectrum, November 2005

85 Born to Run, IEEE Spectrum, November 2005

86 See: Microbivores: Artificial Mechanical Phagocytes, IMM Report Number 25: Nanomedicine, 2001, available at:

87 While the artificial human blood cell is still a blueprint, they already exist for animals. Scientists have cured diabetes in rats using artificial cells containing remedial enzymes, the dimension of a blood cell (see: Our Bodies, Our Technologies, Ray Kurzweil’s Cambridge Forum Lecture, 2006) This has been made possible by advances: in biotechnology, molecular biology, nanotechnology and polymer chemistry (see Therapeutic applications of polymeric artificial cells, nature reviews, March 2005, available at:

88 The world’s most dangerous ideas, Foreign Policy, 1 September 2004

89 The new incredibles – enhanced humans, New Scientist, 13 May 2006

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In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions