Turkey: USA To Denounce Turkey's Eligibility To GSP Beneficiary


The U.S. Trade Representative's Office ("US Trade Office") made an official statement on 04.03.2019 with respect to USA's intention to end Turkey's designation as a beneficiary developing country under the Generalized System of Preferences ("GSP") program1. Basis for this anticipated measure against Turkey was that it no longer complies with the conditions for the program. With regards to the issue, the following topics will be covered within this article:

  • What is GSP and what's its significance?
  • The current situation between Turkey and USA regarding GSP.
  • The possible outcomes of denouncing Turkey's eligibility.

What is GSP?

GSP is a preferential tariff system that World Trade Organization's ("WTO") developed country members are able to offer for the benefit of the developing countries. Such programs allow developing countries to be exempted from general WTO rules, especially the Most Favored Nation ("MFN") rule. This enables developed WTO members to exclude member countries with relatively poorer economies from tariff practices. Developing countries can export certain goods to the countries with GSP programs without imposition of duties through such practices.

The developed countries individually decide which country or product can benefit from their GSP programs. WTO does not provide any definition for developed or developing countries. Generally, developed countries establish a criterion in order to determine which countries can benefit from GSP program.

USA's GSP program was established by the Trade Act of 1974. The program promotes economic development for the developing countries. The scope of the program covers approximately 5,000 products and 120 designated beneficiary countries. The program covered USD 19 billion worth of product only in 20162.

The Current Situation Between Turkey and USA Regarding GSP

Turkey was assigned as a GSP beneficiary developing country by USA in 1975. Since then, Turkey exported billions of US Dollars' worth of products to USA. Only in 2017, USA's imports from Turkey worth 1.66 billion US Dollar under GSP program, which amounts to 17.7% of the total USA imports from Turkey3.

The exclusion of Turkey from GSP program was an oncoming measure which first showed signs in August 2018. The US Trade Office on 03.08.2018 announced that they initiated a review of GSP eligibility regarding Turkey. The incident triggered such action was the measures Turkey took against the imports originating from USA in context of "Trade Wars". According to the US Trade Office's announcement, Turkey has imposed additional tariffs on UDS 1.78 billion of US imports only "and not to other trading partners". The announcement stated that the US Trade Office has launched a self-initiated GSP eligibility review of Turkey based on "concerns related to its compliance with the GSP market access criterion." However, the announcement failed to address whether Turkey's imposition of additional tariffs on US imports triggered the review.

Following the review, the US Trade Office made the announcement regarding Turkey's exclusion from GSP program. As to why it took such measure, the US Trade Office stated that Turkey no longer meets the criteria for eligibility as "it is sufficiently economically developed and should no longer benefit from preferential market access to the United States market." The President is entitled to determine which countries and which products are eligible for GSP program. While making such determinations, the President takes the recommendations of the U.S. Trade Representative. Furthermore, the annual reviews of GSP product and country eligibility are conducted by GSP Subcommittee4. Any changes may not take effect until at least 60 days after the notifications to Congress and the governments of concerned parties. Therefore, no change is expected until the end of said 60 days period regarding Turkey's eligibility.

The Possible Outcome of Such Measure

In the case of exclusion of Turkey from GSP program, Turkey will lose its privileges regarding billions of US Dollars' worth of exports to USA. As it is mentioned above, GSP program enables certain products to be imported without duties.

In consequence of Turkey's exclusion, prices of products that were covered by the GSP program will have duties added on which will reduce the competitiveness of imports originated in Turkey. Some of the leading GSP import categories that Turkey benefited were vehicles and vehicle parts, jewelry and precious metals, and stone articles.


1. https://ustr.gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/press-releases/2019/march/united-states-will-terminate-gsp

2. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2018/01/25/what-is-gsp-and-why-does-it-matter-for-u-s-trade/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.ee63aad27d36

3. https://ustr.gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/press-releases/2018/august/ustr-announces-new-gsp-eligibility

4. Office of the United States Trade Representative, GSP Guidebook March 2017, page 10.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
Related Articles
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions