Turkey: Edinilmiş Mallara Katılma Rejimi ve Mal Rejiminin Tasfiyesi

4721 sayılı Türk Medeni Kanunu ("TMK") 1.1.2002 tarihinden itibaren eşler arasındaki kanuni mal rejimini edinilmiş mallara katılma rejimi olarak düzenlemiştir. Bu yazımızda genel hatlarıyla edinilmiş mallara katılma rejimi irdelenmiştir.

Edinilmiş Malların Kapsamına Neler Girer?

Eşlerin 1.1.2002'den sonra edindikleri mallar, mal rejiminin sona ermesinden 1 yıl önce yapılan karşılıksız kazandırmalar, kasıtlı devirler; diğer eşin kişisel malvarlığı için yapılan ödemeler "edinilmiş mal kapsamında" kabul edilir.

Eşler Arasındaki Mal Rejimi Ne Zaman Son Bulur?

Eşlerden birinin ölümü veya yasal mal rejimi haricinde başka bir mal rejiminin seçilmesi halinde edinilmiş mallara katılma rejimi sona erer. Evlilik boşanma ile sona erdiyse boşanma davasının açıldığı tarih; hakim kararıyla diğer bir mal rejimine geçilmiş veya evliliğin iptali talep edilmiş ise bu talepleri içeren davanın açıldığı tarih, yine bu mal rejiminin sona erdiği tarihtir.

Boşanma Davası Açıldığında "Mal Rejiminin Tasfiyesi" de Kendiliğinden Gerçekleşir mi? Yoksa Ayrıca Dava mı Açılmalıdır?

Öncelikle belirtmek gerekir ki, mal rejiminin tasfiyesi talebe bağlıdır. Eşlerin herhangi birinin mal rejimi ile ilgili talebi varsa "usulüne uygun harcı yatırarak dava açmalı" veya açılmış bir davada "karşılık dava" açarak talepte bulunmalıdır. Aksi takdirde aile mahkemesi bu konudaki talepleri kendiliğinden inceleyemez.

Mal Rejimi Tasfiye Davasının Esastan İncelenip Karara Bağlanmasının Şartları Nelerdir?

Aslında bu davanın açılabilmesi için eşler arasındaki ''mevcut mal rejiminin'' sona ermesi (TMK m. 225) gerekmektedir. Ancak bu şekilde açılan mal rejimi tasfiyesi davasının esastan incelenip karara bağlanması için bu açılan davaların kesinleşmesi gerekmektedir. Örneğin boşanma davası açılmış ve devam ediyor ise açılmış bulunan mal rejiminin tasfiyesine yönelik dava, boşanma davasının sonucunu bekleyecektir.

Mal Rejimi Tasfiye Davası Ne Zaman Açılmalıdır?

TMK'da mal rejiminden doğan davalardaki zamanaşımı süresi ayrı bir madde ile belirtilmemiştir. TMK'nın 178. maddesinde yer alan 1 yıllık zamanaşımı süresinin sadece boşanmanın eki mahiyetindeki davalar için (maddi tazminat, manevi tazminat ve nafaka davaları) söz konusu olduğu ve mal rejimi tasfiye davasından kaynaklanan davalara uygulanmasının doğru olmadığı kabul edilmektedir. Diğer yandan açılacak mal rejiminin tasfiyesi davaları için ayrı bir hüküm olmadığına göre, niteliği itibariyle de bu tip davalar alacak hakkı olarak düşünüldüğünden, Türk Borçlar Kanunu'na atıf yapılarak bu davalarda 10 yıllık zamanaşımı süresi olduğu belirtilmektedir. Neticeten, doktrin ve Yargıtay kararlarındaki tartışmalar ve verilen farklı kararlar nedeniyle, önerimiz mal rejimi tasfiye davasının boşanma davası ile birlikte açılması ve zaman aşımı bakımından riskli bir sonuçla karşılaşılmamasıdır.


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