Hong Kong: Requirements For Video Conference And Representation In The Hong Kong Labour Tribunal

Last Updated: 28 September 2018
Article by Hong Tran
Most Read Contributor in Hong Kong, July 2019

In Mallorca Joenalyn Domingo v. Ng Mei Shuen [2018] HKCFI 1642, the Court of First Instance (the "Court") has allowed an appeal by a claimant of a Presiding Officer's decision to reject her application to have her Labour Tribunal proceedings transferred to the Technology Court to give evidence in the Philippines via video conferencing facilities and for a union representative to represent her.


The Applicant was a foreign domestic helper who lodged a claim in the Tribunal in October 2016 against the Respondent, her former employer, for allegedly slapping her and summarily dismissing her without proper grounds. 

On 8 December 2016, the Applicant returned to her hometown in the Philippines. The Applicant applied for the proceedings to be transferred to the Technology Court and to give evidence in the Philippines via video conferencing facilities (the "VCF Application") as she was unable to return to Hong Kong to give evidence in person. The Applicant also sought leave from the Presiding Officer to allow Mr. Tang, an officer of the Hong Kong Federation of Asian Domestic Workers Union, to represent her at the hearing on 30 March 2017 (the "Representation Application"). 

The Presiding Officer dismissed both Applications and struck out the Applicant's unsettled claims pursuant to section 20A of the Ordinance.  

Issues and Discussions

A. Whether the VCF Application should be granted

Practice Direction 29 ("PD 29") provides that parties can apply for the use of Technology Court subject to the direction of the court or tribunal concerned. In particular, paragraph 5 of PD 29 sets out the factors that the court or tribunal should take into account when making its decision.

The applicant should provide a valid reason for the use of Technology Court, but the threshold for valid reason is not high. The ultimate question was what was best calculated to achieve a just result for both parties.

Here, the Court held that the Presiding Officer had erred in law by failing to consider all the matters set out in paragraph 5 of PD 29 and failing to assess the balancing of prejudice as between the parties. The Presiding Officer attached too much importance on the Respondent's objection to the use of the Technology Court. It was held the Presiding Officer failed to have regard to the fact that the Applicant would be deprived of a fair hearing and her entitlement to bring proceedings to protect her civil right would be prejudiced. On the other hand, there was no evidence of any prejudice to the Respondent if the Applicant's application was allowed. The Court therefore held that the Presiding Officer was plainly wrong in the exercise of his discretion.

B. Whether the Representation Application should be granted

Section 23(1)(e) of the Labour Tribunal Ordinance (the "Ordinance") provides that the Tribunal has the discretion to allow an office bearer of a registered trade union or of an association of employers who is authorised in writing by a claimant or defendant to appear as their representative before the Tribunal.

Apart from section 23 of the Ordinance, the Tribunal had an inherent jurisdiction to allow a lay representative to present and act as advocate for any party in the proceeding. The exercise of the discretion should not be confined to cases where there is a strict necessity. It should be exercised for the promotion of convenience and expedition and efficiency in the administration of justice.

The Court held that the Presiding Officer had adopted too narrow an approach by looking for "exceptional circumstances" in considering the Representation Application. He failed to take into account the whole of the circumstances that are relevant to the case, such as whether the Representation Application was for the purpose of ensuring that the Applicant's claim was not struck out. Further, the Presiding Officer's concern over Mr. Tang's over qualification as a paralegal with experience in handling labour disputes was misplaced. Instead of dismissing the Representation Application, he could have given the Applicant an opportunity to appoint another representative with no legal training to represent her.

C. Whether the Applicant's claim should be struck off

In light of the evidence before the Presiding Officer, the Applicant's claim did not appear to be entirely without merit. The Presiding Officer was plainly wrong in exercising its discretion to strike out the Applicant's claim without considering any other options.


The Court remitted both Applications to the Tribunal to be heard before another presiding officer in the restored proceedings.

The giving of evidence by video conference and appointing a representative to appear on a party's behalf in the Labour Tribunal is permissible in certain circumstances. Employers should bear these options in mind in developing a strategy for handling proceedings in the Labour Tribunal.

Judgment is available at: https://legalref.judiciary.hk/lrs/common/ju/ju_frame.jsp?DIS=116545&currpage=T

Originally published 26 September 2018

Visit us at www.mayerbrownjsm.com

Mayer Brown is a global legal services organization comprising legal practices that are separate entities (the Mayer Brown Practices). The Mayer Brown Practices are: Mayer Brown LLP, a limited liability partnership established in the United States; Mayer Brown International LLP, a limited liability partnership incorporated in England and Wales; Mayer Brown JSM, a Hong Kong partnership, and its associated entities in Asia; and Tauil & Chequer Advogados, a Brazilian law partnership with which Mayer Brown is associated. "Mayer Brown" and the Mayer Brown logo are the trademarks of the Mayer Brown Practices in their respective jurisdictions.

© Copyright 2018. The Mayer Brown Practices. All rights reserved.

This article provides information and comments on legal issues and developments of interest. The foregoing is not a comprehensive treatment of the subject matter covered and is not intended to provide legal advice. Readers should seek specific legal advice before taking any action with respect to the matters discussed herein. Please also read the JSM legal publications Disclaimer.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
Related Articles
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions