China: 司法实践关于宅基地流转协议效力认定

Last Updated: 15 August 2019
Article by Bai Mingliang
Most Read Contributor in China, August 2019

近年来,随着我国城市基础设施建设不断推进,集体土地征收规模逐渐加大,涉及集体土地征收后补偿分配纠纷案件逐年增多,其中涉及宅基地流转协议的纠纷案件较为常见。近日遇到一起宅基地转让纠纷法律咨询,涉及相关宅基地流转协议效力认定问题。通过查找相关案例,初步梳理法院对此类案件的基本裁判观点。

案情介绍

张大、张二、张三是同胞兄弟,均为南宁市郊某集体经济组织成员。上世纪80年代末,三兄弟名下各有一处宅基地。当时由于张二、张三在外地工作安家,便将各自名下宅基地交给张大使用,并签订宅基地让与协议。三人协议约定:张二、张三自愿将各自名下宅基地交给张大建房及其家人永久使用,张二、张三永不干涉,不得反悔。张大当时向张二、张三支付一定数额的补偿费用。由于土地管理政策法律问题,张二、张三的宅基地使用权证并未办理过户到张大名下。之后,张大在张二、张三名下的宅基地建房并居住使用,地上房屋未办理房产证。2012年,南宁兴建地铁,张大、张二、张三宅基地所在房产被依法征收,张大持当年的宅基地让与协议向征地拆迁部门领取了三处宅基地房产的征地补偿款共400余万元。张二、张三听闻后要求张大平均分配补偿款,张大拒绝,张二、张三于是向南宁某城区法院提起诉讼,要求法院判决确认宅基地让与协议无效、张大支付相应补偿款,理由是宅基地让与协议违反国家土地管理法关于宅基地禁止流转及农村集体成员只能拥有一处宅基地的法律规定,应认定无效。南宁某城区法院审理后作出一审判决,认为张大、张二、张三签订宅基地让与协议是各方真实意思表示,并未违反国家法律强制性规定,确认宅基地让与协议合法有效,驳回张二、张三的诉讼请求。

司法实践对宅基地流转协议效力认定

1.同一集体经济组织成员之间的宅基地流转协议有效

在前述案例中,即属于同一集体经济组织成员之间签订宅基地流转协议的情形,宅基地流转协议为有效协议。类似案例有:杨宏玉与被上诉人许志福确认合同无效纠纷一案①

该案基本情况:许志福、杨宏玉系同村村民。许志福于2003年7月申请获批宅基地一处,宅基地上获批建北房4间。申请获批后,许志福在该宅基地上建有北房4间的地基,之后并未继续建房。之后,许志福、杨宏玉签订《协议书》一份,许志福将上述宅基地上的4间房屋地基转让给杨宏玉,杨宏玉给付转让款(该村村委会在合同尾部加盖了印章)。协议签订后,杨宏玉向许志福支付了9万元转让款。后杨宏玉在该宅基地上建造了房屋。

北京市怀柔区人民法院审理后认为:许志福、杨宏玉签订的"协议书"实质上是宅基地的买卖协议。根据我国相关法律规定,宅基地不得买卖,宅基地使用权的村内流转应经有关行政机关的审批方为有效。故对许志福之请求法院予以支持。一审法院于2017年7月判决:许志福与杨宏玉在2010年3月9日签订的《协议书》无效。

杨宏玉不服一审判决,上诉至北京市第三中级人民法院。北京市第三中级人民法院经审理认为:①我国法律法规并不禁止同一集体经济组织内宅基地流转。②《协议书》具备有效合同的全部要件。③《协议书》的效力不受物权登记、无权处分的影响。判决:撤销北京市怀柔区人民法院(2017)京0116民初4025号民事判决,驳回许志福的诉讼请求。

许志福不服北京市第三中级人民法院二审判决,向北京市高级人民法院申请再审。北京市高级人民法院经审查认为,我国《土地管理法》和《物权法》并未禁止农民宅基地的流转。许志福与杨宏玉为同一集体经济组织成员。双方《协议书》并未损害集体公共利益,且经村委会盖章认可,亦已履行完毕多年,应属合法有效。驳回许志福的再审申请。

2.非同一集体经济组织成员之间的宅基地流转协议无效

最高人民法院2015年度公布弘扬"社会主义核心价值观"典型案例之合同纠纷典型案例五——原告邹克友与被告张守忠合同纠纷一案②。

该案基本情况:被告张守忠为日照市东港区某集体经济组织成员,原告邹克友不是该集体经济组织成员,二人签订《协议书》一份,约定张守忠将某处宅基地性质土地卖给邹克友,一次性作价为人民币56900元。之后,因未能办理楼房建设手续,涉案宅基地未建设房屋,东港区某集体经济组织将涉案楼基地收回。被告在涉案楼基地获得补偿安置之后反悔,原告与被告因就楼基地转让事宜协商不成遂起诉,请求依法判令被告支付原告楼基地款,并赔偿原告因此所造成的损失。

山东省日照市岚山区人民法院认为:被告将该楼基地转让给非本集体经济组织成员的原告,违反了我国法律、行政法规的强制性规定,本院依法确认该转让协议无效,原告并不能取得涉案楼基地使用权。因无效合同取得的财产应当予以返还。被告明知涉案楼基地依法不能买卖,仍转让给非本集体经济组织成员的原告,而原告在未确认土地性质的情况下购买涉案楼基地,双方对于合同无效均有过错,但被告作为出卖人过错较大,且被告在涉案楼基地获得补偿安置之后反悔,违反了诚实信用原则,对纠纷的产生另有过错,被告应当赔偿原告因合同无效造成的损失。

总结

1.根据《最高人民法院关于适用〈中华人民共和国合同法〉若干问题的解释(一)》第四条及《最高人民法院关于适用〈中华人民共和国合同法〉若干问题的解释(二)》第十四条的规定,人民法院依据《合同法》第52条第5项"违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定。"认定合同无效,必须满足的条件为:

(1)应当以全国人大及其常委会制定的法律和国务院制定的行政法规为依据;

(2)违反的是效力性强制性规定。《民法总则》第153条"违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定的民事法律行为无效,但是该强制性规定不导致该民事法律行为无效的除外。""不导致该民事法律行为无效"的强制性规定应理解为"非效力性强制规定"。

《物权法》第155条规定:"已经登记的宅基地使用权转让或消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或注销登记。"这一规定实际上已经明确了对于宅基地转让这一法律行为存在的合法性。现行法律法规对于同一集体经济组织成员之间宅基地流转这一法律行为也并无禁止性规定。法院在司法实践中,对具备有效合同全部要件、并无合同无效情形的同一集体经济组织成员之间宅基地流转协议效力是认可的。

《土地管理法》第62条"农村村民一户只能拥有一处宅基地,其宅基地的面积不得超过省、自治区、直辖市规定的标准。...农村村民出卖、出租住房后,再申请宅基地的,不予准许。"确定了农村宅基地的"一户一宅"原则,但该条规定并不属于效力性强制性规定,应理解为管理性规定,且该条款明确了农村村民出卖其住房的后果仅是不能再申请宅基地,并非该出卖住房的行为无效,也并不是合同无效。

2.最高人民法院于2016年11月30日发布的《最高人民法院第八次全国法院民事商事审判工作会议(民事部分)纪要》(以下称会议纪要)第19条"在国家确定的宅基地制度改革试点地区,可以按照国家政策及相关指导意见处理宅基地使用权因抵押担保、转让而产生的纠纷。在非试点地区,农民将其宅基地上的房屋出售给本集体经济组织以外的个人,该房屋买卖合同认定为无效。合同无效后,买受人请求返还购房款及其利息,以及请求赔偿翻建或者改建成本的,应当综合考虑当事人过错等因素予以确定。"司法实践中集体经济组织成员与本集体经济组织以外当事人签订的的农村房屋买卖合同,应为无效。

《土地管理法》第8条:"宅基地和自留地、自留山,属于农民集体所有。"

《物权法》第152条:"宅基地使用权人依法对集体所有的土地享有占有和使用的权利。"可见宅基地属于集体经济组织所有,宅基地使用权是集体经济组织成员享有的特定权利,与其作为集体组织成员这一特定身份相互联系,非集体经济组织成员无权取得或变相取得。同时,《土地管理法》第10条规定:"农民集体所有的土地依法属于村农民集体所有,由村集体经济组织或者村民委员会经营、管理。"宅基地的权利人将其宅基地转让给非集体经济组织成员,有悖于宅基地使用权这一用益物权设立的初衷和会议纪要的精神,同时也对于集体经济组织的权益造成了损害。

《合同法》第52条第二款:"恶意串通,损害国家、集体或者第三人利益的,合同无效。"尽管对于当事人和相对人的主观恶意需要根据具体案例进行判断,但向非集体组织成员转让宅基地使用权这一法律行为对于集体经济组织所造成的损害是真实存在的。因此对于非同一集体经济组织成员之间宅基地流转协议,如农村居民向城镇居民转让宅基地,以及未经村集体组织同意向外村村民转让宅基地的情形,法院一般认定转让协议无效。

《合同法》第五十八条规定"合同无效或者被撤销后,因该合同取得的财产,应当予以返还;不能返还或者没有必要返还的,应当折价补偿。有过错的一方应当赔偿对方因此所受到的损失,双方都有过错的,应当各自承担相应的责任。"相关协议被认定无效后,法院则会根据各方过错程度确定协议无效后果的承担。

文中备注

1 北京市怀柔区人民法院(2017)京03民终10470号民事判决;北京市第三中级人民法院(2017)京03民终10470号民事判决;北京市高级人民法院(2018)京民申164号民事裁定。

2 山东省日照市岚山区人民法院(2015)岚民一初字第169号民事判决。

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