China: 如何围绕电子数据质证形成有效辩护方案?

Last Updated: 19 July 2019
Article by Liao Bowen
Most Read Contributor in China, July 2019

自2012年刑诉法修改将电子数据作为新证据种类予以明确规定以来,电子数据作为一种证据形式在司法实践中出现得越来越频、越来越密,特别是在网络赌博、网络传销、电子诈骗等刑事案件中,电子数据几乎已经成为这类案件的主要证据形式。因为电子数据易修改易丢失的特性,及时将其收集、固定或恢复,并形成有效证据,变得十分重要。对于辩护人而言,当电子数据作为证据在法庭出示时,如果缺乏专业知识则很难对抗这种具有表面可信性的证据,对电子数据的质证尤其困难。

本文以德恒南宁办公室林映峰、徐铁肩律师办理的班某涉嫌开设赌场罪一案为例,展示辩护人如何围绕电子数据质证,形成有效辩护思路和方法。不足之处请各位批评指正。

案情简介

广西南宁市兴宁区人民检察院于2019年1月10日以蓝某、陈某、班某、郭某、韦某、陆某涉嫌开设赌场罪向南宁市兴宁区人民法院提起公诉,指控2018年6月14日至7月12日期间,上述被告人以盈利为目的,利用"皇冠网"账号接受赌客赌球下注,获取"皇冠网"利润分成。经查,2018年7月2日至2018年7月8日间,蓝某和班某共用账号接受下注金额为473234.5元、韦某账号接受下注金额为902478.1元、陈某账号接收下注金额为764005元、郭某账号接受下注金额为505240元、陆某账号接收下注金额为322780.9元。

一、质证思路的形成

根据以往办理网络开设赌场罪案件的经验,赌资数额往往是控辩双方主要的争议焦点之一,因为赌资数额的认定关系到被告人的量刑轻重。在本案中,控方指控被告人接受下注的金额能否被认定直接决定着被告人量刑的轻重。从辩护人角度来说,如果能够推翻指控被告人收取的赌资数额的相关证据,即使被告人在罪名成立的情况下,法庭也只能在三年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制的幅度内对被告人量刑,就达到了罪轻辩护的效果。经过反复研究案卷及相关案例,与当事人多次沟通,辩护人形成了系统的质证方案。

二、质证方法的运用

对电子数据质证的通常做法,一方面,是依据现有相关司法解释和相关规定进行,包括从收集主体是否合法、收集程序与证据的保存是否按相关标准或要求进行、相关笔录类证据是否齐全及符合规范等几方面入手;另一方面,是采用鉴定意见质证的通用方法,即对鉴定机构和鉴定人资质、鉴定程序等方面提出质疑。辩护人在综合使用上述方法时应当结合案件情况重点突破,避免"蜻蜓点水"式的面面俱到。

第一,注意以案件情况和检材作为质证的切入点。

对于鉴定意见的质证建议围绕案件情况和检材展开,辩护人基于对案件情况的掌握可以比较容易地判断用作鉴定的检材是否存在缺陷或瑕疵。以本案为例,控方指控被告人收取赌资数额的证据有:书证《会员账号信息表》、被告人供述及《电子数据检查笔录》。在对上述证据进行审查时,辩护人发现证据存在重大缺陷:根据同案蓝某的讯问笔录得知,《会员账号信息表》系侦查机关从其被扣押的苹果笔记本电脑中打印出来的,并出示给其指认,出示的时间在2018年7月15日。而本案中电子数据送检的时间为2018年7月24日,送检要求就是提取涉案笔记本电脑硬盘相关电子数据,即包括提取先前被列为书证的《会员账号信息表》。这就说明侦查机关在将笔记本电脑送至专门的鉴定部门之前就已经违规拆封电子设备,并对电子设备中的数据进行了操作,由此导致的后果就是:

(一)电子数据存储介质在送检前已经被拆封,已经无法保证作为鉴定的检材的真实性和完整性,则其后的电子数据鉴定结果亦缺乏可信力,其真实性、完整性存疑,侦查机关的取证行为严重违反了《公安机关执法细则》、《计算机犯罪现场勘验与电子证据检查规则(公信安[2005]161号)》、《关于办理刑事案件收集提取和审查判断电子数据若干问题的规定》的相关规定。故《会员账号信息表》和《电子数据检查笔录》依法不能作为定案的依据。

(二)《会员账号信息表》依法不能作为定案依据,则各被告人依据《会员账号信息表》所做的取赌资数额的供述也依法不能做定案依据。

第二,注意结合向被告人发问环节进行质证。

对于鉴定意见的质证,很多辩护人都将目光放在了与鉴定人当庭质证上,但对于电子数据鉴定意见的质证来说,辩护人与当事人一般不具有在专业问题上同鉴定人对抗的能力,故只能求助于"有专门知识的人"。虽然这不失为鉴定意见质证的有效方法,但是在大量刑事案件的实际操作中,上述质证方式由于各种原因难以实现。

我们认为,辩护人可以围绕着"鉴定意见对于案件认定的影响"这一思路进行质证。同样以本案为例,辩护人发现被告人在侦查人员出示《会员账号信息表》前后的供述存在很大不同:在第一次和第二次的讯问中,被告人对自己的接受投注金额仅有模糊记忆——其供述"自己接单金额有20万元左右,统计在高级会员账号上的金额有30万元以上";而在在侦查人员出示《会员账号信息表》的第三次讯问中,被告人供述"从这张表看出,我自己ID103的账号下注金额有50万元,而与同案蓝某共用的高级账号ban1下注金额有505017元"。我们并非质疑侦查机关运用查获的证据向犯罪嫌疑人指认的可行性,我们质疑的是查获的证据真实性存疑,被告人又无法辨认真伪的情况下据此做出供述是否真实。

为此,辩护人专门庭前准备了详细的庭审发问方案,目的就是通过向被告人发问从而质疑鉴定检材乃至鉴定意见的真实性、合法性,以及被告人在指认过程中供述的真实性。这些问题包括"在看守所,公安人员讯问你时,给你出示过三张皇冠网会员的统计表(《会员账号信息表》),你有印象吗?""在公安机关给你看着三张表之前,你记得你和班某共用账号一共投注金额有多少吗?""你在公安机关出示着三张表后供述说,你和班某共用账号里面的投注金额,一人一半,有什么依据?""如果统计表上的数据发生改变,能否识别出来?"结果,各被告人均回答"在见到《会员账号信息表》前没有统计过自己接受投注金额,也不掌握投注金额,如果统计表上数据不真实,自己无法判断"等。由此辩护人得出结论:如果《会员账号信息表》真实性存疑,被告人依据该表所做做的取赌资数额的供述也依法不能做定案依据。

通过以上两点质证方法,辩护人推翻控方指控被告人收取赌资数额的关键证据,争取法庭对被告人从轻量刑的辩护意图清晰完整地在法庭上呈现,取得不错的庭审效果。

三、结 语

电子数据质证是一项专业性极强的活动,上述经验之谈也较为有限和粗浅。在目前的司法环境下,辩护人在对电子数据的质证工作中存在许多现实难题,包括鉴定启动权由司法机关独享,辩护人无法接触和分析原始数据,以及我国的鉴定人制度在实施过程中尚存在诸多弊端——鉴定部门专业性不足、部分鉴定机构不具有独立性、鉴定人出庭接受询问难以质证、专家证人出庭收效甚微等等。这就要求我们在现有的条件下探究出一条行之有效的质证方法,促使公检法重视电子数据鉴定意见的提取、制作、审查等程序,实现司法的实体和程序正义。

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