Canada: Ignorance May Not Be Bliss, But It Can Be Beneficial: Evidence Of The Conduct Of A Judgment Creditor Can Be Used In Certain Circumstances To Engage Section 178(1)(D) Of The Bankruptcy And Insolvency Act

Ignorance May Not be Bliss, but it can be Beneficial: Evidence of the Conduct of a Judgment Creditor Can be used in Certain Circumstances to Engage Section 178(1)(d) of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act and Protect a Judgment from an Order of Discharge

The Defendant was a dentist who had executed a personal guarantee on July 7, 2011 in favour of the Plaintiff (the "Bank") in order to secure payment of the indebtedness of the Defendant's professional corporation. The Bank made a demand for payment on the guarantee, and subsequently brought an action against the Defendant (the "First Action").The Bank was successful on a motion for summary judgment and judgment was granted against the Defendant.

The First Action, the motion for summary judgment, and the judgment made no reference to fraudulent misrepresentation or false pretences on the Defendant's part, necessary to engage section 178(1)(e) of the BIA.

The Defendant was adjudged bankrupt on December 2, 2013 by petition issued by the Bank.

After lifting the stay of proceeding caused by the Defendant's bankruptcy, the Bank commenced a new action against the Defendant for fraud and fraudulent misrepresentation in relation to the same debt as the First Action (the "Second Action"). The Bank also claimed for declaratory relief pursuant to section 178(1)(e) of the BIA that would allow the judgment to survive an order of discharge. The Bank submitted that after the Court rendered judgment in the First Action, the Bank became aware of fraud and fraudulent misrepresentations on the part of the Defendant, and that was why it brought the Second Action instead of including those claims as part of the First Action.

The Defendant brought a motion for summary judgment of the Second Action, and took the position that there was no genuine issue requiring the trial as the Second Action sought to reconstitute the First Action's judgment debt in a way that would survive the Defendant's bankruptcy, despite not advancing any claims of fraud contemporaneously with the First Action.

Accordingly, there were two issues before the Court:

  1. Whether the Bank could lead evidence in the Second Action that was outside of:
  • the facts pleaded in support of the First Action;
  • the evidence presented at the time to secure the judgment debt in the First Action; and
  • the reasons that were given by the Court in granting judgment in the First Action
  1. If so, whether there was a genuine issue requiring a trial

The Defendant argued that the Bank could not lead evidence outside of the confines of the facts, evidence and reasons provided in the First Action, in accordance with the Ontario Court of Appeal's recent decision in Lawyer's Professional Indemnity Company v. Rodriguez, 2018 ONCA 171 ("Rodriguez"). While the Bank agreed that Rodriguez generally barred the use of outside evidence, when determining if a claim engaged section 178(1) of the BIA, it argued that Rodriguez only dealt with circumstances where the Plaintiff already knew about the fraudulent behavior prior to bringing the original action or obtaining judgment, and elected not to pursue claims in fraud. Accordingly, the Bank submitted that the present circumstances, where the Bank was not aware of the alleged fraudulent behavior during the course of the First Action, and could not have discovered it with reasonable diligence, was distinguishable.

The Court agreed with the Bank. After reviewing Rodriguez, as well as other decisions dealing with this issue, the Court found that prohibiting a Plaintiff from leading evidence that was "extraneous" – or outside of the facts, evidence and reasons for judgment of the prior proceeding may be unfair to judgment creditors who did not know or could have reasonably discovered conduct which would engage section 178(1) of the BIA, and runs contrary to the policy considerations underlying section 178(1).

Accordingly, the Court found that the circumstances of the case were distinguishable from Rodriguez, and that creditors are not barred from using extraneous evidence where they did not know of the conduct engaging section 178(1) of the BIA, and could not have discovered it with reasonable diligence.

After finding that Rodriguez had no application to the present facts, the Court determined that there were genuine issues for trial, including whether the Defendant knew various representation he made to the Bank regarding his finances were false, as well as whether the Bank relied upon those representations in extending credit to the Defendant. As a result, the Court dismissed the motion for summary judgment.

About BLG

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Related Topics
Related Articles
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of

To Use you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions