Brazil: TST derruba decisão de Minas Gerais e libera Magazine Luiza para contratar intermitente

Last Updated: 12 August 2019
Article by Veirano E Advogados Associados
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, November 2019

O TST (Tribunal Superior do Trabalho) derrubou, pela primeira vez, uma decisão contrária ao trabalho intermitente. A modalidade de contrato foi criada com a reforma trabalhista de 2017. 

Em recurso apresentado pelo Magazine Luiza, os ministros da Quarta Turma decidiram nesta quarta-feira (7) que o trabalho intermitente é válido. 

O caso trata de um funcionário que ajuizou um processo contra a rede varejista. A forma de contrato permite prestação de serviços em períodos alternados, conforme a demanda do empregador. 

O acórdão, de relatoria do ministro Ives Gandra da Silva Martins Filho, aponta “patente desrespeito ao princípio da legalidade” em uma decisão do TRT-3 (Tribunal Regional do Trabalho da Terceira Região), de Minas Gerais, ao julgar o processo. 

Gandra foi acompanhado pelos ministros Alexandre Ramos e Guilherme Caputo Bastos. Cabe recurso. 

A rede varejista levou o caso à corte após um funcionário com contrato intermitente reclamar na Justiça do Trabalho. A Primeira Turma do TRT-3 mudou a decisão de primeira instância e ainda criticou a nova modalidade. 

“Entende-se, portanto, que o trabalho em regime intermitente é lícito de acordo com a nova legislação, todavia, deve ser feito somente em caráter excepcional, ante a precarização dos direitos do trabalhador”, decidiram os desembargadores. 

Segundo eles, o contrato serve “para atender demanda intermitente em pequenas empresas, sobretudo, não podendo ser utilizado para suprir demanda de atividade permanente, contínua ou regular”. 

Na visão dos magistrados do TRT-3, o contrato não deve ser firmado para o preenchimento de posto de trabalho efetivo na empresa. Eles decidiram pela nulidade do contrato. 

O relator no TST rebateu os argumentos dos desembargadores. Para Gandra, a decisão se choca com a legislação. 

“A lei define e traça os parâmetros do contrato de trabalho intermitente como sendo aquele descontínuo e que pode ser firmado para qualquer atividade, exceto aeronauta”, escreve o ministro. 

O TRT-3, segundo Gandra, cria mais parâmetros e limitações ao afirmar que a contratação intermitente tem caráter excepcional. O ministro diz ainda que a rede varejista respeitou a lei. 

“Mas o 3º Regional [TRT-3], refratário à reforma trabalhista, por considerá-la precarizadora das relações de trabalho, invalida a contratação, ao arrepio de norma legal votada e aprovada pelo Congresso Nacional”, afirma. 

Luiz Alexandre Liporoni, gerente jurídico corporativo do Magazine Luiza, diz que a decisão do TST dá segurança jurídica para a maior aplicação do trabalho intermitente pelas empresas. 

A companhia mantém vínculo com 4.200 trabalhadores intermitentes, segundo ele. No total, a empresa tem cerca de 27 mil funcionários. 

Segundo Liporoni, a modalidade não retira empregos com jornada completa. Em vez disso, possibilita trabalhar com mais funcionários em épocas de maior demanda. 

"O trabalho intermitente permite tirar pessoas do desemprego e oferecer um emprego legítimo com amplitude de direitos", afirma o executivo. 

Ele também diz que, desde a reforma, quase 2.000 trabalhadores intermitentes tiveram sua jornada ampliada e passaram a trabalhar na empresa em tempo integral. 

José Carlos Wahle, sócio da área trabalhista do Veirano Advogados, diz que a decisão sobre o caso do Magazine Luiza aumenta a confiança para outras empresas que queiram adotar o trabalho intermitente. 

Por outro lado, ele diz que o julgamento, apesar de oferecer orientação sobre como o Judiciário tratará o tema no futuro, não garante que todas as decisões em instâncias inferiores seguirão o mesmo entendimento. 

"É uma expressão de como o tribunal superior interpreta aquela lei, funciona quase como uma recomendação para os tribunais regionais e juízes de primeira instância, mas eles são independentes." 

O advogado Alexandre de Almeida Cardoso, sócio da área trabalhista do TozziniFreire, diz considerar a decisão positiva por, em sua visão, ter sido tomada analisando o conteúdo da lei, sem interferência ideológica. 

"É um passo importante no processo de amadurecimento desse ponto da reforma trabalhista, que foi um dos que levantaram maiores discussões", diz. 

O STF (Supremo Tribunal Federal) ainda vai julgar a constitucionalidade do trabalho intermitente. Ações na corte questionam a forma de contratação introduzida pela reforma trabalhista do governo Michel Temer (MDB). 

A PGR (Procuradoria-Geral da República) deu aval à nova forma de trabalho em parecer enviado ao STF. A AGU (Advocacia-Geral da União) também aponta a constitucionalidade da regra.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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