Brazil: MP prevê dispensa de ponto ao trabalhador

Last Updated: 6 August 2019
Article by Veirano E Advogados Associados
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, August 2019

A MP da Liberdade Econômica dispensa trabalhadores de todas as categorias de bater cartão. Relatório aprovado em comissão mista do Congresso autoriza o chamado registro de ponto por exceção. Pelo modelo, um funcionário de qualquer empresa poderá fazer acordo individual com o empregador para não bater ponto. Sendo assim, poderá chegar ao trabalho, cumprir o expediente e ir embora sem fazer nenhuma anotação. 

O trabalhador ficará liberado de marcar horário de entrada, saída ou almoço. Somente exceções - como diz o nome do sistema de registro- serão obrigatoriamente anotadas. Entre elas estão horas extras, folgas, faltas e férias. Pela regra atual, prevista na CLT (Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho), o empregador é responsável por controlar a jornada em empresa com mais de dez funcionários. Qualquer mudança se dá por meio de acordo coletivo. 

A alteração da CLT não consta do texto enviado ao Congresso pelo presidente Jair Bolsonaro em abril. A MP institui a Declaração de Direitos de Liberdade Econômica. Segundo o governo, ela desburocratiza o ambiente de negócios. As mudanças, como não bater ponto e o trabalho aos domingos para todas as categorias, foram inseridas pelo relator da MP, deputado Jerônimo Goergen (PP-RS). 

O conjunto de medidas é considerado uma minirreforma trabalhista por especialistas. Conforme mostrou a Folha em 12 de julho, 36 artigos da CLT serão alterados. “A empresa que quiser vai buscar o ponto por exceção, poderá acabar com o ponto”, diz Otavio Pinto e Silva, sócio do escritório Siqueira Castro e professor de direito do trabalho da USP. 

Segundo ele, a proposta flexibiliza o controle da jornada. “O empregador vai usar a lei para dizer que uma hora extra foi feita e marcada pelo ponto de exceção. Ficará o ônus [da prova] com o trabalhador”, afirma. Até maio, segundo dados do Tribunal Superior do Trabalho (TST), trabalhadores fizeram 550 mil pedidos de indenização em busca de pagamento de hora extra pelo empregador. As ações tramitam em primeira instância. 

“A tendência é de caírem drasticamente os pedidos de hora extra”, diz Ricardo Calcini, professor de direito do trabalho da FMU. “O trabalhador terá de produzir a prova mais robusta, e isso, na prática, vai ficar cada vez mais difícil.” Goergen afirma que põe na lei uma prática existente nas empresas e chancelada pela Justiça trabalhista. 

"Estou atualizando a legislação. Eu coloquei na lei aquilo que já é decisão”, diz. “É uma burocracia a menos. Se a Justiça já decide dessa forma [pelo registro de ponto por exceção], não tem de discutir na Justiça. Já reconheço assim.” O sistema, porém, é polêmico na Justiça do Trabalho. A aceitação do registro de ponto por exceção ainda é discutida em primeira instância e também em tribunais regionais. 

Outro ponto polêmico da MP, o fim do adicional de periculosidade para motoboys deverá cair. “Isso é compromisso meu. Foi errado. A ideia era melhorar para o motoboy e ficou horrível”, diz o relator. O adicional de 30% existe desde 2014. Segundo ele, a intenção era manter o benefício para a categoria e impedir que quem vai para o trabalho de moto, como meio de locomoção, pudesse reivindicá-lo. 

Texto também autoriza abertura de bancos aos sábados; Febraban não comenta medida

O relatório da MP da Liberdade Econômica autoriza a abertura de agências bancárias aos sábados. Hoje, o funcionamento é proibido. O deputado Jerônimo Goergen (PP-RS), relator da medida, propõe a revogação de uma lei de 1962. Ela veta o expediente interno e externo de “estabelecimentos de crédito”. A medida já enfrenta resistência de sindicatos de bancários. A Federação Brasileira dos Bancos (Febraban) diz que não comenta projetos em tramitação ou em debate. 

O novo texto foi aprovado em comissão especial no dia 11 de julho. A MP foi enviada ao Congresso pelo presidente Jair Bolsonaro em 30 de abril. A possibilidade de abertura de bancos aos sábados vem de uma emenda inserida por Goergen na medida. Ele também defende liberar o trabalho aos domingos e feriados. 

“Abrir ou não (o estabelecimento) é um arbítrio do dono da empresa. Ele tem de cumprir, e isso é importante de se dizer, a lei trabalhista”, afirma Goergen. “Cumprindo (o empresário) a lei trabalhista, nenhuma convenção, nenhum acordo, nenhuma disposição vai valer para impedir a abertura do negócio.” 

A série de mudanças tem sido chamada de minirreforma trabalhista por especialistas. Emenda de Goergen também dispensa, por acordo individual, o registro de ponto diário. Segundo o deputado, um dos benefícios da liberação de abertura de agências aos sábados é o aumento da disponibilidade de serviços bancários à população. 

“Ao fazer isso, eu estou criando uma condição para empregabilidade, talvez não seja emprego de massa, porque nem toda cidade vai abrir, talvez em cidade grande”, diz. Apesar das novas tecnologias, como serviços por aplicativos, internet ou telefone, os bancos poderão ter interesse em abrir agências, afirma Luiz Antonio dos Santos Junior, sócio do Veirano Advogados. A revogação da lei de 1962, segundo o advogado, permite abrir um posto bancário dentro de uma grande empresa, em um shopping”, diz o advogado. 

“Abrir em lugares pontuais para que as pessoas possam ter acesso, vejo como uma possibilidade a mais de trabalho, alinhada com a autorização de trabalho aos domingos e feriados”, afirma Santos Junior. De acordo com ele, por se tratar de uma lei, não há inconstitucionalidade na mudança. Os contratos de trabalho dos bancários, porém, terão de passar por ajustes, diz Santos Junior.

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