Mexico: Cinco pasos para establecer un negocio en México

Last Updated: 19 December 2018
Article by TMF Group

Most Popular Article in Mexico, December 2018

Si bien México es un país competitivo para las inversiones a nivel internacional gracias a la gran cantidad de oportunidades que ofrece, la ubicación, los diversos tratados internacionales, la estabilidad macroeconómica, el tamaño y la solidez de su mercado interno, puede resultar muy difícil establecer un negocio en el país.

El proceso de establecimiento cuenta con varios pasos con reglas estrictas. El proceso puede tomar mucho tiempo si usted no comprende las regulaciones y políticas locales.

1. Elegir el tipo de entidad

El primer paso para establecer un negocio en México es decidir si el negocio será una entidad mexicana, una sucursal o una oficina de representación. Comprender el tipo de gobernanza corporativa y el tipo de actividades que realizará la compañía puede ayudar a decidir qué tipo de entidad necesita, o si una sucursal o una oficina de representación serán mejores opciones. Asimismo, es importante decidir si una persona estará físicamente en México para el establecimiento del negocio o si asignarán un experto en el país que pueda brindar asistencia y facilite el proceso.

2. Elegir un nombre

Si la decisión final es la de establecer una entidad (una sucursal y una oficina de representación son una extensión de la compañía extranjera en México), es necesario decidir el nombre que tendrá la compañía. Es importante proponer tres nombres para la solicitud a realizar ante el Ministerio de Economía. Este proceso puede tardar de 3 días a una semana a fin de que les informen si el nombre fue aprobado o no está disponible.

3. Enviar los documentos y el estatuto

Si la entidad mexicana va a tener accionistas extranjeros, se necesitarán varios documentos para formalizar el establecimiento. Es necesario que algunos documentos estén certificados y apostillados o legalizados (si el país celebró la Convención de La Haya) a fin de que sean válidos en México. El rol de un escribano en México difiere en gran medida al de otros países. En otros países, un escribano es testigo y también firma el documento. En México, un escribano es un abogado con experiencia que aprueba un examen muy difícil para tener derecho a actuar como Escribano Público.

Si una persona brindará asistencia en México durante el proceso de establecimiento y actuará en nombre de los accionistas extranjeros, se preparará y enviará un poder legal a fin de que lo firme el accionista o su/s representante/s. El poder deberá estar certificado y apostillado a fin de que tenga validez en México.

Mientras se formaliza toda la documentación, se puede comenzar a redactar el estatuto. En México, todas las entidades corporativas necesitan contar con uno. El Acta de Constitución se añadirá de acuerdo a las especificaciones del estatuto y será incluida en la misma escritura pública. Es obligatorio que el estatuto de las compañías esté certificado. El proceso legal se completa luego de que los documentos estén firmados y presentados. El plazo para completar este paso puede variar en base a la firma, certificación y apostilla de los documentos originales. Luego de que el escribano reciba toda la documentación, la firma no debe tardar más de 10 días hábiles.

4. Obtener un número de identificación tributaria

Su nueva compañía necesita un número de identificación tributaria para poder hacer negocios en México. Los accionistas extranjeros deben tener en cuenta que dicho número solo puede solicitarlo un ciudadano o residente mexicano. Al tenerlo en cuenta anticipadamente, se le asignará a la persona adecuada los poderes legales para obtener el número correspondiente. Si no se tiene en cuenta de antemano, los accionistas deberán realizar una reunión para otorgar el poder a un ciudadano o residente mexicano mediante una resolución unánime a fin de obtener el número. Sin el número tributario, no será posible gestionar todos los requisitos obligatorios adicionales, tales como el registro ante el Registro de Inversiones Externas, la solicitud para la apertura de una cuenta bancaria o la emisión de facturas.

La persona que actúa en nombre de la compañía asistirá personalmente ante la autoridad fiscal con el Acta de Constitución para solicitar el número de identificación tributaria. Este paso también puede completarlo el escribano. No obstante, el representante debe ir a la oficina del escribano para firmar la solicitud del número tributario, lo cual es más fácil y rápido. Por último, es muy importante considerar que a fin de obtener el número, el negocio debe tener una oficina física en México que debe comprobarse con una prueba autorizada de domicilio. Esta es una de las partes más difíciles del proceso dado que hay pocos documentos que la autoridad fiscal y otras autoridades gubernamentales aceptan.

5. Obtener una cuenta bancaria

Las compañías establecidas recientemente necesitan tener una cuenta bancaria de origen mexicano dado que los impuestos solo pueden pagarse por bancos mexicanos. Los bancos extranjeros no cuentan con una plataforma utilizada por la autoridad fiscal para recibir pagos fiscales. Este proceso solo puede llevarse a cabo luego de que el negocio obtiene su número de identificación tributaria y el proceso puede tardar de 1 mes y medio a 3 meses para completarse.

TMF México

TMF México puede evitar la carga burocrática del proceso de establecimiento y brindar apoyo administrativo a las compañías, tales como la incorporación de una entidad, el cumplimiento legal administrativo, los servicios de representación y domiciliación, los servicios de RR.HH. y nómina y los servicios de contabilidad y cumplimiento impositivo.

¿Tiene planes para expandirse a México? Contáctenos para saber cómo podemos ayudarle con el establecimiento de su negocio y las operaciones de cumplimiento.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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