Colombia: Lo que necesita saber para contratar empleados en Colombia

Last Updated: 12 July 2019
Article by Kevin Valbuena

Colombia puede ofrecer grandes oportunidades a las compañías que quieren expandir sus operaciones hacia América Central y América del Sur. No obstante, el proceso de contratación de un empleado en Colombia es complejo. Debe mantenerse al tanto de los pasos y las reglas a seguir para estar en total cumplimiento con las leyes laborales locales que regulan el proceso de integración.

Proceso de integración

El primer paso en el proceso es la redacción de un contrato laboral por parte del empleador. Se trata de un contrato escrito que especificará la posición que tendrá el nuevo empleado. Colombia tiene un sistema de seguridad social obligatorio y, una vez que se contrata al colaborador, el próximo paso será el registro en dicho sistema, el cual brinda beneficios al empleado. El empleado debe elegir su plan de seguro de salud entre nueve opciones diferentes y también debe elegir entre cinco entidades de pensiones distintas. Asimismo, el empleador debe registrarlo en una entidad de riesgo laboral para riesgo profesional y seguro laboral. Por último, el empleador registrará al nuevo colaborador en una entidad de beneficencia. Los empleados extranjeros requieren una visa de trabajo válida, además de otros registros obligatorios para este tipo de empleados.

La complejidad de la integración comienza con estos registros porque todas las inscripciones deben completarse el mismo día en que el empleado comienza a trabajar en la compañía. Los documentos también deben firmarse por escrito personalmente. Las firmas digitales no están permitidas para la presentación de formularios ante la oficina de seguridad social.

La resolución local N.° 2.346 de 2007 establece que tres días antes de la fecha de inicio laboral, cada empleado debe realizarse un examen médico obligatorio facilitado por la compañía.

Reglas sobre gestión de nómina en Colombia

Los empleados en Colombia reciben un pago mensual o quincenal, dependiendo de la compañía. En Colombia, el salario mínimo establecido por ley para 2019 es de $828.116 pesos colombianos. Hay 13 períodos de pago en Colombia, y el decimotercer salario se paga como un bono antes del último día del mes de junio; y la segunda mitad debe pagarse antes del 20 de diciembre. El bono establecido por ley se paga de manera proporcional al tiempo trabajado.

Este método de pago salarial, además de premiar el trabajo regular, compensa el valor de los salarios complementarios, cargas, beneficios por trabajo nocturno, durante los días domingo, durante los días feriados, decimotercer salario y bonos legales extra.

Las clasificaciones de las contribuciones de beneficios para el salario regular son:

Beneficio

Contribución del empleado

Contribución del empleador

Pensión

4%

12%

Asistencia médica

4%

8.5%

Riesgo laboral

0%

5% - 6.9%

Bienestar

0%

4%

Algunas compañías ofrecen beneficios adicionales, tales como seguros de vida, servicios adicionales del seguro de salud, seguros dentales, cupones de almuerzo, planes de ahorro e inversión, educación, entre otros.

Licencia paga

Los empleados tienen derecho a 15 días de vacaciones pagos por año una vez que completaron un año de servicio, pero las compañías pueden otorgarles días adicionales en sus contratos. En Colombia, hay 13 feriados nacionales y cinco feriados religiosos por año. Los empleados tienen derecho a 18 semanas de licencia paga por maternidad, ocho días laborales de licencia paga por paternidad y cinco días de licencia paga por fallecimiento. Respecto a la licencia por enfermedad, los empleados deben presentar un certificado médico.

Gestionar a sus empleados

El proceso de integración de los nuevos empleados puede ser complejo y tomar mucho tiempo. Cada proceso debe completarse antes de que el empleado comience a trabajar, a fin de estar en cumplimiento con la ley local. Si no se completa o presenta toda la información a las entidades gubernamentales correctas, pueden aplicarse sanciones. TMF Colombia cuenta con los expertos de RR.HH. para brindarle todos los servicios de integración, y abordar las necesidades de RR.HH. y nómina que tengan su compañía y los nuevos empleados. Trabajaremos con usted en cada paso del proceso de integración. Contáctenos.

Descubra en qué posición clasificó Colombia en términos de complejidad con respecto a la contratación y pago a empleados en nuestro Índice Global de Complejidad Corporativa.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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