Spain: Real Decreto-Ley 5/2019, De 1 De Marzo, Por El Que Se Adoptan Medidas De Contingencia Ante La Retirada Del Reino Unido De Gran Bretaña E Irlanda Del Norte De La Union Europea Sin Que Se Haya Alcanzado El Acuerdo Previsto En El Articulo 50 Del Tratado

Last Updated: 4 June 2019
Article by Marta Salamanca Martín

Real Decreto-Ley 5/2019, De 1 De Marzo, Por El Que Se Adoptan Medidas De Contingencia Ante La Retirada Del Reino Unido De Gran Bretaña E Irlanda Del Norte De La Union Europea Sin Que Se Haya Alcanzado El Acuerdo Previsto En El Articulo 50 Del Tratado De La Union Europea

I. Introducción

El pasado dos de marzo se publicó en el Boletín Oficial de Estado el Real Decreto-ley 5/2019, de 1 de marzo, por el que se adoptan medidas de contingencia ante la retirada del Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte de la Unión Europea sin que se haya alcanzado el acuerdo previsto en el artículo 50 del Tratado de la Unión Europea. Actualmente se ha acordado una prórroga en relación con el citado artículo 50 hasta el 31 de octubre de 2019.

Dada la incertidumbre que rodea el proceso de ratificación del Acuerdo, el Consejo Europeo ha reiterado a los Estados miembros que intensifiquen los trabajos relativos a la preparación para las consecuencias de la retirada del Reino Unido en todos los ámbitos y teniendo en cuenta todas las posibilidades.

Consecuencia de esto es la publicación del Real Decreto-Ley cuyas implicaciones en materia laboral y de Seguridad Social se exponen a continuación.

II. Novedades

1. Temporalidad de la medida y reciprocidad

Sin perjuicio de todo lo incluido a continuación, se incluye expresamente en el Real Decreto-Ley que (i) las medidas contenidas en el mismo se suspenderán cuando así esté previsto expresamente o, (ii) en caso de establecerse un plazo temporal de vigencia, dejarán de estarlo por el mero transcurso de dicho tiempo.

Por otro lado, se supedita la aplicación de estas medidas al otorgamiento de un tratamiento reciproco de las mismas por parte de las autoridades británicas.

Lo anterior implica que, los derechos otorgados por el Real Decreto-ley a favor de personas físicas y jurídicas de otras nacionalidades se mantendrán si en Reino Unido se otorga el derecho correspondiente a las personas físicas o jurídicas españolas.

2. En materia de relaciones laborales

Aquellas empresas establecidas en España que tengan trabajadores desplazados temporalmente en el Reino Unido a fecha de la retirada, deberán seguir aplicando las disposiciones contenidas en la Directiva 96/71/CE, del Parlamento y del Consejo, de 16 de diciembre, sobre desplazamiento de trabajadores efectuados en el marco de una prestación de servicios, siempre que las autoridades británicas otorguen un tratamiento recíproco a los trabajadores desplazados temporalmente en España.

Por otro lado, se establece el mantenimiento de los comités de empresa europeos o los procedimientos alternativos de información y consulta a los trabajadores constituidos o acordados con anterioridad a la fecha de retirada del Reino Unido de la Unión Europea.

3. Seguridad Social

En relación con la Seguridad Social, se aplicarán las reglas que se especifican a continuación durante un plazo de 21 meses desde la retirada, en caso de que no se haya suscrito con anterioridad a ese plazo un instrumento internacional, bilateral o multilateral que las regule.

(i) Los nacionales de Reino Unido que trabajen legalmente en España y estén sujetos a la legislación española de Seguridad Social disfrutarán de iguales derechos y obligaciones que los nacionales españoles.

(ii) Las personas que residan y trabajen en España y estén sujetos a la legislación británica de Seguridad Social, podrán seguir estándolo hasta finalizar el periodo previsto en el Reglamento (CE) 884/2004, de 29 de abril la coordinación de los sistemas de seguridad social. Transcurrido dicho plazo deberá darse de alta y cotizar en el régimen español de Seguridad Social.

(iii) Los pensionistas nacionales de Reino Unido que viniesen recibiendo pensiones contributivas en España lo seguirán haciendo, así como sus revalorizaciones.

Por otro lado, en cuanto a los periodos cotizados en España antes de la retirada, se tendrán en cuenta a efectos del cálculo de la pensión de jubilación, incapacidad permanente y muerte y supervivencia, medida que también es aplicable para los periodos cotizados en Reino Unido y Gibraltar a la hora de causar derecho a las mismas en España.

(iv) Con respecto a las prestaciones por desempleo, se tendrán también en cuenta dichos periodos previos cotizados y se podrá cobrar dicha prestación cuando la última cotización se haya producido en España y se mantenga el derecho de residencia.

4. Asistencia sanitaria

En relación con la asistencia sanitaria, se aplicarán las reglas que se especifican a continuación durante un plazo de 21 meses desde la retirada, en caso de que no se haya suscrito con anterioridad a ese plazo un instrumento internacional, bilateral o multilateral que las regule.

(i) Las personas que tengan derecho a asistencia sanitaria en Reino Unido y Gibraltar recibirán la asistencia sanitaria española correspondiente siempre que el Reino Unido preste asistencia sanitaria a los españoles y otros ciudadanos que tengan derecho a la misma en España.

(ii) Para estas personas, las tarjetas sanitarias ya expedidas seguirán vigentes y con plena eficacia.

III. Conclusiones

Las medidas en el ámbito laboral y de Seguridad Social incluidas en el Real Decreto-Ley 5/2019 establecen las garantías ofrecidas por las autoridades españolas de cara a salvaguardar los derechos de ciudadanos de Reino Unido en nuestro país tanto en materia de derechos de trabajadores transfronterizos como de cotizaciones a la seguridad social y futuras pensiones.

De esta forma, los trabajadores nacionales de Reino Unido que hayan prestado servicios y realizado cotizaciones a la Seguridad Social en España verán inalterados los derechos ya adquiridos tanto a nivel de asistencia sanitaria como de futuras pensiones a las que tendrían derecho. 

Así, siempre que las autoridades competentes en Reino Unido otorguen los mismos derechos a los trabajadores y residentes españoles en dicho país, España mantendrá vigentes los derechos expuestos anteriormente, puesto que, de lo contrario, las medidas serán suspendidas.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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