Spain: Divorcio: validez de los acuerdos de los cónyuges

Last Updated: 4 January 2019
Article by Ascensión Martín

Una pregunta que con relativa frecuencia se hace a los abogados de familia por parte de sus clientes es la de ¿tienen validez los acuerdos a los que he llegado con el otro progenitor a pesar de que no han sido aprobados por ningún juez?

La Sala Primera, de lo Civil, del Tribunal Supremo, acaba de dictar dos Sentencias que resuelven esta duda en sentido afirmativo.

La primera de ellas, dictada en fecha 15 de octubre de 2018, entiende que "Los acuerdos sobre medidas relativas a hijos comunes, menores de edad, serán válidos siempre y cuando no sean contrarios al interés del menor y con la limitación impuesta en el artículo 1.814 del Código Civil, esto es, que no cabe renunciar ni disponer del derecho del menor a la pensión de alimentos, ni puede compensarse con una deuda entre los progenitores, ni someterse condicionalmente en beneficio de los menores."

El supuesto de hecho era el siguiente: Esposos que en el momento de la separación de hecho y a modo de acuerdo privado entre ellos pactan que el padre pase una pensión alimenticia al hijo común de 150 euros y que contribuya con el 50 % al pago de los gastos extraordinarios de carácter educativo y sanitario y además fijan medidas relativas al régimen de visitas del menor.

Los cónyuges no promovieron el procedimiento judicial de divorcio y, en consecuencia, este acuerdo no fue ratificado ni sometido a aprobación judicial.

En el procedimiento iniciado por la esposa, ésta reclama al padre el pago de lo adeudado en concepto de alimentos a favor de su hijo en base a lo acordado por ambos en el convenio de separación matrimonial no ratificado ni sometido a aprobación judicial.

La sentencia señala rotunda: "El convenio regulador no puede tacharse de ineficaz por carecer del requisito de ser aprobado judicialmente."

La segunda sentencia, de fecha 7 de noviembre de 2018, considera que un convenio regulador firmado por las partes pero no ratificado y en consecuencia no aprobado judicialmente: "No puede integrarse en la resolución judicial con toda la eficacia procesal de fuerza ejecutiva, pero tampoco se le puede negar su naturaleza de negocio jurídico familiar válido y eficaz, salvo que la parte que lo suscribió, pero no lo ratificó, pruebe en el proceso contencioso algún vicio en el consentimiento del artículo 1.265 del Código Civil, o alguna modificación sustancial de las circunstancias que determinaron el inicial consenso."

El supuesto de hecho en este segundo caso es el siguiente: Las partes firmaron un convenio regulador de divorcio y lo presentaron junto con la demanda de divorcio en el juzgado correspondiente, iniciándose el oportuno procedimiento. El esposo no acudió a la ratificación del convenio, lo que motivó el archivo del procedimiento.

A continuación, la esposa interpuso demanda de divorcio contenciosa contra el esposo en la que las medidas que solicitó como efecto de aquél traían causa del convenio no ratificado judicialmente.

En este caso todas las medidas reguladas en este convenio se refieren a aspectos patrimoniales y económicos.

También en este caso es rotunda la sentencia al señalar: "Lo que no es posible, en contra de la jurisprudencia de la sala, ampliamente reseñada, es negarle su naturaleza de negocio jurídico familiar, como expresión del principio de la autonomía de la voluntad, ... de ahí que si la parte que suscribió el convenio, como negocio jurídico familiar, y que se aporta como tal por la contraparte al proceso contencioso, no alega ni justifica ninguna de las circunstancias antes mencionadas, el tribunal no ha de decidir sobre las medidas de naturaleza disponible que se le postulan, apartándose de lo libremente pactado por los cónyuges en el convenio suscrito por ambos, y haciendo su particular apreciación legal sobre tales medidas."

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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