United States: Positive Train Control: Roadblocks To Interoperability

Hwi Harold Lee is an Associate and Ieuan G. Mahony is a partner in Holland & Knight's Boston office

Positive Train Control (PTC) is a system that will automatically apply the train's brakes in certain situations. PTC systems consist of technologies designed to help detect dangerous situations and automatically intervene to prevent a wide range of rail accidents. Among these are excess speed, rear end collisions, and misaligned switches. Legislators have debated for decades whether to require railroads to install PTC systems. Following a series of fatal accidents in 2008 (including a collision between a freight train and a commuter train in Chatsworth, California that resulted in 25 deaths), Congress passed a mandate requiring all railroads to install and adopt PTC systems.1

Interoperability and Disclosure Requirements

Interoperability is a key component required for a nationwide implementation of PTC. The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) defined interoperability as "the ability of a [PTC-equipped train] to communicate with and respond to the PTC railroad's [PTC] system, including uninterrupted movements over property boundaries."2

Federal Rules require that applicable railroad companies, including commuter services operating over a freight railroad's tracks, each file a PTC Implementation Plan (a PTCIP) that describes how its PTC system "provides for interoperability of the system between the host and all tenant railroads3 on the track segments required to be equipped with PTC systems...."4 To enforce compliance with the PTC Implementation Plan, railroad companies are required to disclose materials that may be confidential or otherwise sensitive information, including:

  • (i) [...] relevant provisions of agreements, executed by all applicable railroads, in place to achieve interoperability;
  • (ii) [...] all methods used to obtain interoperability; and
  • (iii) the [identity of] any railroads with respect to which interoperability agreements have not been achieved as of the time the plan is filed, the practical obstacles that were encountered that prevented resolution, and the further steps planned to overcome those obstacles

Possible Roadblocks

Among other challenges, achieving the FRA-prescribed interoperability has proven to be an tremendous task. Congress initially required that railroad companies finish the implementation of PTC systems by December 2015. The December 2015 deadline, however, has since been extended to December 2018, due, in part, to delays in the development of certain key technologies and possible legal and business roadblocks that could have hampered railroad companies.

Two key issues relating to interoperability that may inhibit implementing PTC systems include a lack of consistent standards and vendors' efforts to protect their proprietary information and intellectual property.

PTC systems typically consist of a multitude of hardware and software components that must be capable of interoperating with other components within the same PTC system, and those components of PTC systems in use by other, connected railroads. For example, assume that companies "A," "B," and "C" each operate a separate, yet, interconnected network of railroads. For PTC to properly function, different devices installed on a locomotive operated by Company A must be capable of interacting with: (i) devices installed on other PTC segments in use by Company A, such as back offices and wayside locations, and (ii) devices installed on PTC segments operated by Company B and Company C. Without common standards among the different vendors that provide PTC system components, railroad companies' efforts to comply with the interoperability requirements may be hindered, and could add to the overall complexity of PTC solutions.

The FRA's interoperability requirements for PTC are broadly consistent with so-called "open architecture" deployments. Entities procuring technology increasingly favor these types of deployments. In an open architecture deployment, the vendor structures its product in discrete modules (either software, hardware, or both) that permit the procuring entity (i) to swap-out the original vendor's modules for equivalent, interchangeable modules of another vendor, and (ii) to interface with other systems that it, and its business partners, operate. Open architecture solutions can reduce – or eliminate – the risks of sole-source procurements and "vendor lock-in."

PTC solutions, however, are undoubtedly expensive to develop and, accordingly, vendors will likely seek to protect associated intellectual property and confidential information in order to secure their investment and to maximize their competitive advantage. Although such vendor efforts are understandable, they may interfere with railroad companies' regulatory obligations, including the obligation to make various disclosures regarding their PTC systems. In the absence of robust confidentiality and cooperation provisions, railroad companies may face difficulty meeting the disclosure requirements.


1 Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, Pub. L. No. 110–432, available at https://www.fra.dot.gov/eLib/Details/L03588 

2 49 C.F.R. § 236.1003. 

3 "Host railroad" is a railroad that has effective operating control over a segment of track. "Tenant railroad means a railroad, other than a host railroad, operating on track upon which a PTC system is required." Id. 

4 Id.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


From time to time Mondaq may send you emails promoting Mondaq services including new services. You may opt out of receiving such emails by clicking below.

*** If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here .


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.