Turkey: Anayasa Mahkemesi: Tebligatın Usulüne Uygun Şekilde Yapılmaması Gözetilmeden Temyiz Talebinin Reddedilmesi, Mahkemeye Erişim Hakkını İhlal Eder

Last Updated: 5 July 2019
Article by Dr. E. Seyfi Moroğlu, LL.M. and Bahadır Gültekin

Anayasa Mahkemesi, davalıya ("Başvurucu") tebligatın usulüne uygun şekilde yapılmadığı gözetilmeksizin, davalı hakkında verilen kararın kesinleştiğinden bahisle temyiz talebinin reddedilmesinin mahkemeye erişim hakkını ihlal ettiğine karar verdi.

Karara konu olayda Başvurucu, bir hastanede başhekim olarak görev yapmıştır. Başvurucu, hastane tarafından 29 Aralık 2003 tarihinde yapılan ihaleye ilişkin İhale Komisyonu kararını başhekim sıfatıyla onaylamıştır. İhalede usulsüzlük olduğunun belirlenmesi üzerine, Sağlık Bakanlığı, Başvurucu ve bir kısım İhale Komisyonu üyesi aleyhinde alacak davası açmıştır.

İlk derece mahkemesi, Başvurucu'nun kayıtlı adresinin Amerika'da olduğu ve ilgili kurumlarla yazışmalar yapılmasına rağmen tebligatların yapılamadığı gerekçesiyle Başvurucu'ya ilânen tebligat yapılmasına karar vermiştir.

Yargılama sonucunda ilk derece mahkemesi, Başvurucu ve diğer davalıların aleyhine karar vermiştir. Diğer davalılar önce temyiz sonra da karar düzeltme yoluna başvurmuşlardır. Karar düzeltme aşamasında Yargıtay 4. Hukuk Dairesi, mülgâ Borçlar Kanunu'nun 43. ve 44. maddeleri uyarınca tazminat miktarında uygun bir indirim yapılması gerektiği gerekçesiyle onama kararını kaldırarak hükmü, temyiz eden diğer davalılar yararına bozmuştur.

Bu sırada Başvurucu, yargısal süreçten yeni haberdar olduğunu belirterek 2 Şubat 2016 tarihinde ilk derece mahkemesinin ilânen kendisine tebliğ ettiği kararı temyiz etmiş ve 10 Şubat 2016 tarihinde;

  • İlânen tebligatın usulsüz olduğunu,
  • Dosyada tebligat yapılabilmesi için güncel adresleri mevcut olduğu hâlde ilânen tebligat yapılarak davaya katılımının engellendiğini,
  • Davadan Yargıtay aşamasındayken haberdar olduğunu ve bu nedenle temyiz başvurusunun reddedildiğini,

ileri sürerek Anayasa Mahkemesi'ne bireysel başvuruda bulunmuştur.

Anayasa Mahkemesi ise inceleme sonucunda;

  • Başvurucu'nun tespit edilen adreslerine tebligat çıkarılmadan ya da kanun ve yargısal içtihatlarda belirtildiği üzere adresin bulunmasına yönelik yeterli araştırma yapılmadan yargılamanın sonlandırılmasının ve Yargıtay'ın tebligat işlemlerinin usule uygun olduğunu belirterek Başvurucu'nun temyiz talebini reddetmesinin öngörülebilir olmadığı,
  • Başvurucu'nun mahkemeye erişim imkanının ortadan kalktığını ve bu suretle mahkemeye erişim hakkına yapılan müdahalenin orantısız olduğu,

kanaatine ulaşmıştır.

Anılan gerekçelerle, Anayasa Mahkemesi, Anayasa'nın 36. maddesinde öngörülen hakkaniyete uygun yargılanma hakkının ihlal edildiğine karar vermiş ve yeniden yargılama için dosyayı ilk derece mahkemesine göndermiştir.

Anayasa Mahkemesi'nin 21 Mart 2019 tarihli ve 2016/2595 başvuru sayılı kararının tam metnine bu link ten ulaşabilirsiniz.

"Yazı ilk olarak, Moroğlu Arseven'in iki haftada bir yayımlanan bülteni MA | Gazette'de yer almıştır."

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