Turkey: Yargıtay'dan, İşçinin Savunması Alınmadan İş Sözleşmesinin Feshedilmesine İlişkin İçtihadı Birleştirme Kararı

Yargıtay, verdiği içtihadı birleştirme kararı ile işçinin belirsiz süreli iş sözleşmesinin aldığı sağlık raporları nedeniyle feshedilmesi durumunda, işçinin savunmasının alınmasına gerek olmadığına hükmetti.

4857 sayılı İş Kanunu'nun ("İş Kanunu") 25. maddesinin birinci fıkrasının (b) bendine göre; işçinin sağlık nedenleriyle işe devamsızlığının, 17. maddede belirtilen bildirim sürelerini altı hafta aşması durumunda, işveren, iş sözleşmesini haklı nedenle ve derhal feshedebilir. Ancak hükümde, söz konusu maddeye dayanarak gerçekleştirilen fesihlerde, işverenin işçinin savunmasını alma zorunluluğu olup olmadığına değinilmemiştir.

İş Kanunu'nun 19. maddesinde, belirsiz süreli iş sözleşmesinin işçinin davranışı veya verimi nedeniyle feshedildiği durumlarda, işçinin savunmasının alınmasının gerektiği hüküm altına alınmıştır. İş Kanunu'nun 25. maddesinin ikinci fıkrasında belirtilen ahlak ve iyi niyet kurallarına aykırılık sebeplerine dayanarak gerçekleştirilen fesihler ise bu kapsamdan ayrı tutulmuştur.

Bunun yanında, 25. maddenin son bendinde, haklı sebeple fesih durumunda işçinin feshin geçersizliğini hangi maddeler kapsamında öne sürebileceği belirtilmiş, ancak savunma alınması gerekliliğini öngören 19. madde sayılmamıştır. 19. maddenin gerekçesinde ise işçinin zihinsel veya bedensel yetersizliği durumunda savunma alınmasının işverenden beklenmeyeceği belirtilmiştir.

Bu kapsamda, işçinin belirsiz süreli iş sözleşmesinin, 25. maddenin birinci fıkrasının (b) bendinde sayılan sebeplerden dolayı feshedilmesi durumunda savunmasının alınmasının gerekli olup olmadığına ilişkin uygulamada bazı tereddütler ortaya çıkmıştır. Yargıtay İçtihadı Birleştirme Genel Kurulu ("Genel Kurul"), Yargıtay hukuk dairelerinin içtihat aykırılığının giderilmesine karar vermiştir.

Söz konusu İçtihadı Birleştirme Kararı ile Genel Kurul,

  • İşçinin sağlık nedenleriyle İş Kanunu'nun 17. maddesindeki bildirim sürelerini altı hafta aşan devamsızlığının iş sözleşmesinin haklı sebeple feshi için yeterli olduğuna,
  • Bu kapsamda, İş Kanunu'nun 25. maddesinin birinci fıkrasının (b) bendine göre gerçekleştirilen derhal fesihlerde, işçiden savunma alınmasının gerekmediğine

karar vermiştir.

Genel Kurul, kararın gerekçesinde,

  • 25. maddenin birinci fıkrasının (b) bendine göre geçekleştirilen fesihlerin işçinin davranışı ya da verimi ile ilgili sebeplerle gerçekleştirilen fesihler olarak değerlendirilemeyeceğini,
  • 25. maddede sayılan haklı sebeple fesihlerde feshin geçerliliği için savunma alınmasının öngörülmediğini,


Genel Kurul'un 9 Mayıs 2019 tarihli ve 30769 sayılı Resmî Gazete'de yayımlanan 19 Ekim 2018 tarihli ve 2018/10 sayılı kararının tam metnine bu link ten ulaşabilirsiniz.

Yazı ilk olarak, Moroğlu Arseven'in iki haftada bir yayımlanan bülteni MA | Gazette'de yer almıştır.

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