Russian Federation: Russland ermöglicht Unternehmen Selbstanzeige von Bestechung

Last Updated: 22 August 2018
Article by Hannes Lubitzsch

In Russland tätige Unternehmen können sich nun durch Selbstanzeige bei den russischen Strafverfolgungsbehörden von der Haftung für Bestechungsdelikte befreien. Nach den am 14. August 2018 in Kraft getretenen Änderungen des russischen Ordnungswidrigkeitengesetzes erfordert die strafbefreiende Wirkung die Ermöglichung der

  • Aufdeckung der entsprechenden Rechtsverletzung (durch das Unternehmen),
  • Durchführung eines ordnungsrechtlichen Ermittlungsverfahrens (gegen das Unternehmen) und/oder
  • Aufdeckung, Offenlegung und Ermittlung der verbundenen Straftat (begangen von natürlichen Personen zum Vorteil des Unternehmens).

Nach den Gesetzesänderungen kann die das Ermittlungsverfahren gegen eine juristische Person eröffnende Staatsanwaltschaft zudem zwecks Absicherung der Bußgeldzahlung auf Grundlage einer Gerichtsentscheidung deren Vermögen beschlagnahmen lassen.

Durch die Selbstanzeige wird das Unternehmen von Bußgeldzahlungen gemäß Artikel 19.28 des Ordnungswidrigkeitengesetzes (Rechtswidrige Vergütung in Namen einer juristischen Person) befreit. Nach dieser Vorschrift können juristische Personen mit Bußgeldern in Höhe des bis zu Hundertfachen der Bestechungssumme belegt werden. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Rechtsordnungen erstreckt sich die strafbefreiende Wirkung auf 100% der Bußgelder und ist zwingend; diese liegt nicht im Ermessen der Strafverfolgungsbehörden oder Gerichte.

Die neuen Selbstanzeigevorschriften erfassen alle Bestechungshandlungen mit Ausnahme der Bestechung ausländischer Amtsträger. Dieser Tatbestand wurde vom russischen Gesetzgeber von der Selbstanzeige ausgenommen, um hier nicht von der OECD Konvention gegen die Bestechung ausländischer Amtsträger im internationalen Geschäftsverkehr abzuweichen, der Russland beigetreten ist und die keine entsprechenden Regelungen enthält.

Die strafbefreiende Wirkung der Selbstanzeige beschränkt sich auf das Unternehmen selbst. Denjenigen natürlichen Personen, die die Zahlung der Bestechungsgelder zum Vorteil des Unternehmens vorgenommen haben – regelmäßig seine Angestellten und Vertreter – droht weiterhin die Strafverfolgung nach den entsprechenden Vorschriften des russischen Strafgesetzbuchs. Diese Personen können nur in den Genuss gesonderter Strafbefreiungsvorschriften des Strafgesetzbuchs gelangen – z.B. nach Artikel 204 (Wirtschaftsbestechung) und 291 (Bestechung von Amtsträgern).

Da in Russland derzeit meist nur geringfügige Bestechungsdelikte verfolgt und Minimalstrafen verhängt werden (siehe unseren Corporate ABC Report für 2017), werden wohl nur wenige Unternehmen in Russland tatsächlich Selbstanzeige erstatten. Allerdings können die neuen Regeln helfen bei der Trennung von Mitarbeitern, denen die Zahlung von Bestechungsgeldern nachgewiesen werden kann (da nach russischem Arbeitsrecht die Verwirklichung eines Bestechungsdelikts allein grundsätzlich noch kein Kündigungsgrund ist). Diesen Mitarbeitern kann nun glaubhaft eine Anzeige bei der Staatsanwaltschaft angedroht werden, da sich das Unternehmen dabei nicht mehr einer eigenen Haftung aussetzen würde.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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