Mexico: Consecuencias para México Tras Suscribir el Convenio del CIADI

Last Updated: 12 January 2018
Article by Carlos Vejar

Carlos Vejar is a Senior Counsel in Holland & Knight's Mexico City office

Desde hace más de dos décadas, México ha impulsado políticas para fomentar el ingreso y participación de la inversión extranjera en las actividades económicas del país1. Sin embargo, y a pesar de ser uno de los 10 países más activos en disputas de inversión2, México continua en ese bloque reducido de países que no forman parte del Convenio del Centro Internacional de Arreglo de Diferencias relativas a Inversiones (ICSID)3, el cual tiene actualmente 153 países como miembros.

Sin embargo, el día de hoy en Washington D.C., el Secretario de Economía, Ildefonso Guajardo, dará el primer paso para cambiar esta situación, al suscribir el instrumento de adhesión de México al Convenio CIADI. Quedando pendiente la aprobación del Senado de la República para definir la fecha definitiva de entrada en vigor del Convenio para México, la cual ocurriría a los 30 días calendario después de la fecha del depósito del instrumento de ratificación, aceptación o aprobación.

¿Qué es el CIADI?

El CIADI es una organización intergubernamental perteneciente al Banco Mundial, creada mediante un tratado internacional denominado "Convenio sobre Arreglo de Diferencias Relativas a Inversiones entre Estados y Nacionales de otros Estados" (el Convenio CIADI o el Convenio), que proporciona servicios de soporte y facilita reglas procesales para la conciliación y el arbitraje de diferencias relacionadas con inversiones4.

¿Cuál es la Finalidad del CIADI?

El CIADI, entre otras actividades, funge como un sistema confiable, especializado e imparcial de resolución de controversias en materia de inversión, evitando favoritismos por parte de las cortes locales, o el uso de la protección diplomática para su resolución. En la prestación de servicios para la administración de disputas de inversión, el CIADI compite con otros organismos e instituciones internacionales, aunque hoy por hoy continua siendo el centro de mayor reconocimiento.

¿Qué Cambiaría con el Ingreso de México al Convenio CIADI?

Una vez concluido el proceso de ingreso al CIADI por parte de México, prácticamente todas las disputas internacionales en materia de inversión que se inicien en su contra, podrán ser sujetas a las reglas de conciliación y arbitraje previstas en la Convención5, las cuales se conducen actualmente bajo las reglas del mecanismo complementario del propio CIADI6 (excepto aquellos casos en que se elijan las reglas de Comisión de las Naciones Unidas para el Derecho Mercantil Internacional), las cuales no prevén la aplicación de la "definición" de inversión prevista en elConvenio (el Convenio CIADI exige la aplicación del artículo 257). Conforme a las reglas acutales los laudos no pueden ser objeto del mecanismo de nulidad del propio Convenio; y no se cuenta con el mismo grado de certidumbre sobre la ejecución de los laudos que otorga el Convenio. Además al ser miembro del CIADI, México podrá participar en la toma de decisiones del Organismo (lo que toma relevancia ante la creciente necesidad de reformar el sistema de arbitrajes de Inversión8).

¿Qué Beneficios le Representaba a México no ser Parte del CIADI, y/o Porqué Hasta Ahora es que México Suscribió el Convenio?

La respuesta a la primer pregunta no parece tener una respuesta clara, cuando menos no ha sido articulada expresamente por el Gobierno de México. Es probable que la única ventaja podría haber sido la posibilidad de "complicar" la ejecución de los laudos ya que el Convenio del CIADI facilita su ejecución sin necesidad de invocar las disposiciones de la Convención de Nueva York9. Sin embargo, hay quienes argumentan que siempre resultaría mejor intentar la nulidad de un laudo ante cortes locales que ante árbitros del mismo sistema quienes velarán por los intereses de la institución antes de que por los intereses de quien solicita la nulidad (pero esto es un tema realmente subjetivo, casos tales como los de los impuestos a la fructosa10 demuestran que recurrir a cortes locales, no le significó a México ninguna ventaja).

La segunda pregunta puede ser respondida bajo el contexto de una renegociación del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN) en la que uno de sus participantes no parece tener interés alguno por reforzar el mecanismo de arbitraje de inversión. Aunado a ello, las próximas elecciones generan sobre la agenda económica del próximo gobierno (existe la duda sobre si una nueva administración partidista en México pudiera no ser adepta a la defensa de los intereses de inversionistas extranjero); así como la recepción de nuevas e importantes inversiones en el sector energético. Todo ello requiere del envío de señales claras para brindar certidumbre a los mercados en cuanto a la protección de las inversiones extranjeras en México (además de una necesidad pendiente de congruencia con la propia política de México en materia de inversión ya que al día de hoy se han suscrito más de 35 Acuerdo para la Promoción y Protección Recíproca de las Inversiones (APPRIs) y Tratados de Libre Comercio con mecanismos de inversión, sin que a la fecha fuese miembro del CIADI).

¿Qué sigue para México?

Una vez concretado este cambio en la política comercial de México, nuevas interrogantes surgirán: ¿Cuál será la nueva agenda para México en materia de Inversión una vez suscrito el CIADI?; ¿Debería México modernizar los APPRIs suscritos hace más de 20 años?; ¿Debería México suscribir convenios como la Energy Charter Treaty?; ¿Debería participaren país activamente en los foros de discusión del propio CIADI para reestablecer el sistema para la protección de las inversiones, etc.?  

Estas preguntas aún no tienen respuesta, sin embargo, será importante prestar atención sobre estos cualquier acción y formular sus puntos de vista al gobierno de México a fin de poder influir de manera positiva en la política comercial del país. El equipo de Comercio Internacional de Holland & Knight continuará monitoreando estos eventos mediante la publicación de alertas y asesorando a sus clientes sobre las disputas en materia de inversión.  

Footnotes

1 El Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2013-2018 (apartado "México Próspero", Objetivo 4.7 y apartado "México con Responsabilidad Global", Objetivo 5.3) así como los 44 tratados internacionales de la materia ratificados por México (12 Tratados de Libre Comercio "TLCs" con 46 países y 32 Acuerdos para la Promoción y Protección Recíproca de las Inversiones "APPRIs" con 33 países) lo constatan.

2 Véase reporte especial de UNCTAD pág. 3

3 Canadá se unió al CIADI en 2013, y en la actualidad quedan fuera de la Convención economías como, Venezuela, Bolivia (estos últimos tres denunciaron el Convenio), Ecuador, Polonia, Corea del Norte, Irán, e Irak, así como los países BRIC (excepto China) entre otros. Ver Mapa de Estados Contratantes y Signatarios de la Convención.

4 Acerca del CIADI.

5 Todos TLCs con capítulos de inversión, así como todos los APPRIs preveían esta posibilidad. Véase sitio de UNCTAD – Investment Policy Hub.

6 Que permite al CIADI administrar procedimientos incluso cuando el Estado parte de la diferencia o el Estado del cual es nacional el inversionista no es miembro del Convenio, lo que ha sido posible gracias al consentimiento otorgado por México en sus TLCs y en APPRIs.

7 "Salini test"

8 Véase propuesta de la Unión Europea.

9 Un estudio de 2012 elaborado por estudiantes del  Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, con sede en Ginebra, da cuenta de estas diferencias, entre otras.

10 Véase nota periodística de aquella época.

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