Italy: 意大利公司合并:程序,影响和类型

Last Updated: 16 April 2019
Article by Arnone & Sicomo

意大利公司合并:程序,影响和类型 

"公司合并"一词是指两家或多家公司联合起来,仅组成一家公司的行为。

相关的规范性法律均包含在意大利民法典的条款中,确切地对应第2051条和第2504 条第五项。

根据意大利民法第2051条具体规定, 公司合并可以通 过以下方式实现

- 成立一家新公司;

- 一家或多家公司并入另一家公司。

对于那些正在清算并已开始分配资产的公司,不允许参与合并。

对银行类公司("银行统一文本法"TUBC第31条, 第36条和第57条)和保险公司(第87条及以下条款,"统一文本法"TU第449/59号条款和第17条第990/69条款)都有关于公司合并的具体规定。

意大利公司合并的形式:联合或并入

因此,严格来说,现有的公司合并的形式为通过联合或通过并入一家公司。

公司合并可以定义为:

- 类合并, 涉及相同类型的公司;

- 类合并, 涉及不同类型的公司。

至于合并的类型,可以概括为:

- 设合并,意味着参与合并的公司均失去其法律主体性而不再存在,创建出一家全新的公司,参与合并的公司合伙人成为新公司的合伙人;

- 吸收合并,只有被合并的公司失去其法律主体性,而参与合并的公司维持其法律主体性;

- 反向合并,当参与合并的公司被接受投资的公司并入,进而取消前者的资产时;

- 股份公司合并,是指一家公司在并入另一家公司时拥有后者的股份和股本;

- 合并拥有 90%以上股 权的公司;

- 在债务收购后进行合并。

意大利公司合并的法律程序

公司合并的法律程序分为几个阶段,包括 :

- 初步阶段:这是建立公司行政部门之间关系和联系的阶段,在这个阶段开始准备合并程序所需的文件;

- 登记阶段:在该阶段将启动合并程序所需的文件送递公司总部;

- 审议阶段:这是股东大会根据提交的文件决定是否批准公司合并的阶段;

- 异议阶段:这是公司债权人行使反对权的阶段;

- 实施阶段:这是合并最终发生的阶段。

合并程序可以通过 普通程序实施,或者在某些条件下使用简化程序实施。

不同之处在于,在普通程序中,操作的完成是在股东的批准下完成的,而在简化的过程中,整个过程由公司理事负责。

依据意大利民法第2505条规定,所谓简化合并程序的先决条件为兼并公司占有被兼并公司的全部股份或股本,并且必须在合并契约完成时已经存在。

类似于民法第2505条第1项的规定,在下列情况下可以采用简化合并:

a) 由第三家公司全资拥有的两家(或更多)公司的合并;

b) 两家(或更多)公司的合并,其中一家由第三家公司全资拥有,另一家由后者部分拥有,其余部分由前者拥有;

c) 三家(或更多)"串联"公司的合并(A 100%持B,B 100%持有C);

d) 两家(或更多)公司的合并,拥有相同其合伙人,并持有相同的比例和相同的权利;

e) 通过母公司"反向"并入全资子公司进行合并。

公司合并程序的特征性文件和行为如下:

- 合并计划书(意大利民法第2501条第3项);

- 公司理事会报告(意大利民法第2501条第5项);

- 专家报告 (意大利民法第2501条第6项) ;

- 参与合并公司的资产负债表(意大利民法第2501条第4项);

- 合并决定(意大利民法第2502条);

- 执行合并。

意大利公司合并:根据意大利民法第2502条,合伙公司和资本公司之间有何区别? 

根据意大利民法第2502条的规定,合并由每个公司通过项目的参与批准来决定,除非公司的注册契约或公司章程另有规定:

- 在合伙公司中,由合伙人多数制通过,按照每个合伙人所持公司利润分配比例来计算,并附带不同意公司合并的合伙人的撤回权;

- 在资本公司中,根据修改公司契约或公司章程的规则相关的规定。

实施合并决定也可能导致合并计划的变更,前提是它不影响合伙人或第三方的权利。

意大利公司合并的影响 

关于公司合并 产生的影响,参考意大利民法第2504条第一段中的规定,合并后的公司或合并公司将承担参与合并公司的权利和义务,继续其在合并之前已经产生的所有关系,甚至包括诉讼关系。

关于这一点需要指出的是,最近,在4月27日,最高上诉法院颁发了号令为8430/2016的审判决定,依据意大利民法新颁布的第2050条第二项,在公司吸收合并的情况下,公司之间的合并不会导致被合并公司的消失或新法律实体的产生,而是通过参与公司的相互整合实现统一,这些公司在新组织结构中仍然保留各自的身份。

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions