Germany: Hacer negocios en Alemania: lo que debe saber

Last Updated: 30 January 2019
Article by Ursula Rutovitz

Alemania es uno de los países más vinculados con las normas en el mundo. La burocracia y el idioma pueden resultar muy desalentadores para un novato. Sino pregúntele a los refugiados sirios recién llegados al país.

Los medios alemanes reportaron que los refugiados estaban sorprendidos por las largas filas y aprobaciones necesarias para obtener una vivienda, asistencia médica y una cuenta bancaria. Una de las personas mencionó que no sabía lo que había firmado porque el formulario para solicitar un apartamento subsidiado estaba en alemán.

De acuerdo a este artículo, un grupo de refugiados sirios emprendedores que se registraron en una clase de codificación decidieron hacer algo al respecto. Presentaron un concepto para una aplicación móvil que podía ofrecer las descargas de los documentos requeridos, la ubicación de las oficinas y la traducción de documentos oficiales al árabe e inglés. Decidieron que la aplicación se llamaría "Bureaucrazy".

Las compañías se pueden relacionar con la experiencia de los refugiados. Las regulaciones laborales incluyeron reglas, en algún momento, sobre donde ubicar interruptores de luz y contenedores de residuos. Todo mejoró cuando el gobierno se dio cuenta de que mucha burocracia puede ahogar la economía.

En 2004, por ejemplo, fue necesario un promedio de 45 días para registrar una nueva compañía en Alemania, de acuerdo a un estudio del Banco Mundial. En 2018, tomó 10 días y medio. Ese es un gran progreso, dado que muchas de las aplicaciones y presentaciones son actualmente electrónicas. Sin embargo, en comparación con el Reino Unido y Estados Unidos, donde los procesos toman entre cuatro y cuatro días y medio, Alemania sigue retrasada.

Incluso un plazo de 10 días y medio es optimista en algunos casos. Se pueden establecer compañías pequeñas dentro de ese plazo, pero para compañías más grandes el ingreso al mercado es un proceso más complicado. Es recomendable contar con un socio local para asegurarse de tener la documentación y los poderes legales correctos, y también las certificaciones y verificaciones a fin de no poner en riego los esfuerzos de su compañía.

A fin de acelerar el proceso, están disponibles las compañías en reserva (empresas pre-registradas denominadas "Shelf companies"). Dichas compañías son ideales para las empresas internacionales o emprendedores que necesitan cerrar un acuerdo urgente, firmar un contrato importante, facturar a un cliente alemán a tiempo o evitar demoras externas. Las compañías en reserva están listas, con una cuenta bancaria corporativa y un domicilio legal registrado.

A pesar de que Alemania está vinculada de manera formal a los negocios, las leyes y regulaciones protegieron otros intereses, como el laboral, ambiental y de los consumidores. Los sindicatos sólidos y bien establecidos y los consejos de los trabajadores lograron muchos beneficios para los empleados, desde salarios altos y beneficios de jubilación generosos hasta regulaciones estrictas de salud y seguridad. En 2015, Alemania presentó un salario mínimo a nivel nacional para ayudar a fomentar el consumo personal.

Los promotores del mercado desregulado protestaron contra el salario mínimo y argumentaron que ello generaría la pérdida de empleos y limitaría la flexibilidad de los trabajadores. No obstante, esos temores no se materializaron. Más de tres años después, el desempleo cayó de 4.9% en diciembre de 2014 a 3.5% en febrero de 2018. El gasto del consumidor también creció. El año pasado rosó el 3.6%, y fue el mayor aumento desde 1994.

A pesar de la carga administrativa y regulatoria, Alemania es la economía más grande y sólida de la UE. La reputación por la calidad y eficiencia se ilustra en las estadísticas de comercio. De acuerdo a la Organización Mundial de Comercio, la participación total de Alemania en la exportación de mercancía mundial fue de 8.17% en 2017, ubicándose en el tercer puesto detrás de China y EE.UU. Los bienes manufacturados sumaron más del 85% de las exportaciones de Alemania. Para las compañías y emprendedores que buscan establecerse en Alemania, están disponibles recursos gratuitos como esta guía de perfiles de país.

El superávit comercial de Alemania con Estados Unidas es también un símbolo de la competitividad del país. Los automóviles fabricados en Alemania y el equipamiento y la maquinaria médica tienen mucha  demanda en los Estados Unidos. Desafortunadamente, el desequilibrio comercial se ha convertido en un problema político en EE.UU. y existe preocupación sobre el hecho de que el Presidente Trump continúe con una amenaza de imponer aranceles en la importación de automóviles.

El prolongado apoyo del gobierno a la investigación y desarrollo han jugado un papel importante en la industria alemana. También se reflejó en el creciente escenario de start-ups tecnológicas, donde la ciencia y las compañías manufacturas atraen dólares para inversión. Berlín está convirtiéndose en uno de los dos polos más grandes de start-ups en Europa gracias a los alquileres razonables, bajos salarios y habilidades importadas.

Para satisfacer la demanda de los trabajadores que son expertos en tecnología, una organización sin fines de lucro de Berlín enseña cómo codificar a quienes buscan asilo, como los ciudadanos sirios que crearon "Bureaucrazy". Ello es un buen ejemplo del nuevo espíritu de innovación que se inculca en Alemania.

Contamos con el conocimiento local para ayudarlo a establecer su negocio en Alemania o simplificar sus operaciones alemanas actuales, contáctenos.

Este artículo se publicó originalmente en GlobalTradeMag.com

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