China: 中国大湾区的发展新机遇

Last Updated: 5 February 2019
Article by Jessie Ye

Most Popular Article in China, February 2019

中国第一次通过深圳经济特区开放经济已有40年,如今该国有望以更大的规模复制先前的成功。

中国大湾区(GBA)倡议旨在联合广东省的九个城市、香港和澳门特别行政区,利用这区域庞大的潜力,可以发展出媲美旧金山、纽约和东京相似的枢纽,成为经济增长的推动力。

此举动的原因是明确的。虽然中国大湾区仅占中国土地面积的0.6%,但却容纳了总人口的5%,并占国内生产总值(GDP)的12%。2017年,中国大湾区的国内生产总值(GDP)合计达1.83兆美元,预计该区域会在2020年成为同类中最大的经济体。

总人口而言,中国大湾区是世界最大的经济居住区域,人数比东京大都市地区还要多。在急速城市化和富裕消费群体增加的带动下,中国大湾区代表着一个庞大的国内市场。该区也崛起成为全球贸易的支柱,因为它预计会在中国的一带一路中扮演关键角色,从中连接亚洲、中东、非洲和欧洲的市场。

无论是希望在中国设立或扩张业务的外国投资者,还是希望加强在中国大陆的营运的香港和澳门公司,也瞄准中国大湾区的优势,冀望从中受益。

基建与创新

中国大湾区为公司提供高效和渐趋稳定的供应链,可以进入世界十大最繁忙的海港的其中三个、高速公路网络、高铁和机场,与各个城市、中国大陆和全世界取得连接。近期加强连接的主要工程还包括连接香港和中国大陆的高铁网络,以及位于珠江口、长达42公里的港珠澳大桥。这是世界最长的跨海大桥。

中国大湾区为各个行业的蓬勃发展提供了一个平台。广州已将保健和生物科技领域列为主要优势,而香港则被公认为是全球金融中心和世界最大的离岸人民币融资中心。

深圳曾是制造业巨头,如今已成为中国高科技和创新引擎的中心,同时也是全球巨头如腾讯、华为和中兴的基地。邻近的城市如惠州和珠海则是先进的制造业中心。至于澳门,现在已是赌场收入的全球领先者,目前也正朝旅游和休闲产业资本发展

不仅如此,中国大湾区也是几所大学的所在地,院校能促进教育的进步,并为本地企业提供稳定的技术专才。截至2015年,中国大湾区九个大陆城市的研发支出共占中国国内生产总值(GDP)的2.7%,几乎能媲美美国(2.8%)和德国(2.9%)。

中国大湾区的基建和行业商机正通过一系列的政策和税务奖励得到辅助。该区的自由贸易区通过双边税收协定,提供税务减免。另外,参与环保和高科技行业的公司也能享有税收抵免,此外还有各种政府的奖励和补贴。而个人所得税优惠适用于从事指定行业的员工,如金融和科技。这有助于公司吸引全球人才。

更重要的是,中国大湾区旗下各个司法管辖区的条例透明度和营运效率高,均能让企业加快在该区成立公司,促进日常营运,使外国投资者受益。

应对挑战

中国大湾区的崛起也带来挑战。

中国与美国之间的贸易纠纷存在明显的风险,而且有可能会导致长期的影响。关税调高将增加制造成本、冲击市场需求和削弱中国大湾区以出口为主的经济业务。这情况至少将延续到内需恢复景气。

中国的资本管制是个相对不透明的决策制定系统。广州、香港和澳门之间不同的法律、税务和管治结构,也是外国投资者需要应对的挑战。公司可以考虑向在中国大湾区有据点又具备专业知识的伙伴寻求合作,以应对这些挑战。

TMF Group了解不同类型企业在该区成立公司的程序,对当地会计、税务和监管框架之间的差异也了如指掌。我们能协助您的企业选择最佳经商地点和最适合您公司的商业架构,好让您可以充分受惠于中国大湾区的各种优惠和奖励措施。

虽然贸易纠纷和其他短期风险会拖缓中国的整体改革动力,但中国大湾区作为日益整合的区域,能为亚洲和更远地区的公司提供商机。

这就有如中国国家主席习近平最近在深圳所提及的:"我们的改革不会停止、开放不会止步。在未来的40年,中国会有更多令世界印象深刻的成就。"

需要更多资讯? 欢迎联系我们中国的专家。

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