Brazil: Eleições 2020, Justiça Eleitoral e aplicação do Código de Processo Civil

O Tribunal Superior Eleitoral (TSE), já em preparação para as Eleições de 2020 e no intuito de detectar eventuais conflitos normativos existentes entre todos os regramentos de Direito Eleitoral, recentemente instituiu o Grupo de Trabalho para Sistematização das Normas Eleitorais1.

Para permitir a oitiva de todos os atores envolvidos no processo eleitoral, o Grupo de Trabalho do TSE conduziu, de maio a julho deste ano, audiências públicas que debateram os temas de todos os eixos do Direito Eleitoral, permitindo riquíssimas discussões e reflexões para o aprimoramento da legislação.

Um dos temas debatidos – e que chama constantemente a atenção da Justiça Eleitoral – foi a importação dos instrumentos processuais do Código de Processo Civil de 2015 (CPC/15) para a Justiça Eleitoral2.

Mesmo com a previsão expressa no CPC/15 de que "na ausência de normas que regulem processos eleitorais (...), as disposições deste Código lhes serão aplicadas supletiva e subsidiariamente"3 e a existência de resoluções do TSE para tratar sobre a aplicação do CPC/15 na Justiça Eleitoral4, a jurisprudência ainda está em construção acerca da intersecção entre processos eleitorais e instrumentos do processo civil.

Em recente decisão, o ministro Edson Fachin do TSE consolidou a necessidade da aplicação na Justiça Eleitoral de um dos mecanismos processuais do CPC/15 que mais tem gerado discussões na jurisprudência – a impugnação ao cumprimento de sentença.

No julgamento do REspe 221-58.2017, em trâmite perante o TSE, o ministro reconheceu que a impugnação ao cumprimento de sentença deve ser aceita no âmbito eleitoral, solucionando uma das principais dúvidas acerca da compatibilização entre o CPC/15 e a Justiça Eleitoral.

O procedimento de cobranças das condenações/multas arbitradas ocorre de forma diversa na Justiça Eleitoral desde o segundo semestre de 20145 – o TSE consolidou que o titular para cobrança da multa é a União, devendo a parte devedora, desta forma, realizar o pagamento da Guia de Recolhimento da União no prazo de 30 dias contados da intimação para pagamento6.

Como se nota, há uma substancial diferença do que se verifica na Justiça Comum – após a consolidação do posicionamento por parte do TSE7, as multas não devem mais ser pagas à parte vencedora, mas sim à União, já que o bem jurídico protegido nos processos eleitorais não é de interesse particular, mas sim de interesse público.

E este posicionamento gerou certa dúvida: poderia a parte devedora, após a intimação para pagamento, apresentar impugnação ao cumprimento de sentença no processo eleitoral?

O TSE já havia decidido que caberia impugnação ao cumprimento de sentença no âmbito eleitoral (AgR-RMS n.º 1019-87.2015), mas a questão foi reavivada em função da titularidade da União para cobrança das multas na Justiça Eleitoral ter sido reconhecida pela Justiça Eleitoral.

No recente caso decidido pelo ministro Edson Fachin, as instâncias inferiores consolidaram que não caberia impugnação no âmbito eleitoral em função de dois aspectos – a titularidade da União e a necessidade de insurgências contra os valores da multa serem apresentadas apenas na sede fiscal.

No entanto, a decisão do caso do REspe 221-58.2017 ratifica acertadamente que, mesmo com a titularidade da União, a parte devedora tem direito de questionar a multa no momento pré-executivo fiscal, via impugnação ao cumprimento de sentença.

Esta possibilidade de questionar a multa em momento anterior à inscrição em dívida ativa advém, principalmente, de dois fatores – os encargos adicionais enfrentados na via fiscal, que aumentam o valor do montante devido em até 50% do valor original, e o momento apropriado, nos termos do Código de Processo Civil, para discussão da multa arbitrada.

Esta decisão assegura importante mecanismo às partes no processo eleitoral, que poderão exercer plenamente seu direito ao contraditório e à ampla defesa no momento em que intimadas a pagar as multas arbitradas na Justiça Eleitoral na fase pré-executiva.

O reconhecimento da possibilidade de apresentação de impugnação ao cumprimento de sentença no âmbito eleitoral é mais um importante passo de diálogo entre a Justiça Eleitoral e as normas processuais civis.

Footnotes

(1) Resolução TSE n.º 115/2019.

(2) http://www.tse.jus.br/imprensa/noticias-tse/2019/Maio/aplicacao-do-cpc-no-ambito-da-justica-eleitoral-e-discutida-durante-evento-no-tse

(3) Art. 15, CPC – "Na ausência de normas que regulem processos eleitorais, trabalhistas ou administrativos, as disposições deste Código lhes serão aplicadas supletiva e subsidiariamente."

(4) Resolução TSE n.º 23.478/2016.

(5) O precedente que consolidou este posicionamento é o REspe 1168-39.2012, Relatora Ministra Luciana Lóssio, julgado em 9/9/2014.

(6) Consulta TSE n.º 385-17.2015.6.00.0000, que estabeleceu que o prazo de 30 dias para pagamento das multas da Justiça Eleitoral, previsto no art. 3.º da Resolução n.º 21.975/2004 do TSE, deve ser contado da intimação para pagamento.

(7) Súmula 68, TSE – "A União é parte legítima para requerer a execução de astreintes, fixada por descumprimento de ordem judicial no âmbito da Justiça Eleitoral."

Originally published by Estadão.

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