Worldwide: Governo quer vender 3.751 imóveis. Meta é arrecadar R$ 1 bi ainda este ano

Last Updated: 8 August 2019
Article by Veirano E Advogados Associados
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, August 2019

O governo tem um plano ambicioso para um período de quatro anos: arrecadar, com a venda de imóveis da União, R$ 30 bilhões. Para isso, no entanto, terá que enfrentar desafios. Invasões, problemas com a documentação e dificuldades no licenciamento de projetos são alguns dos entraves que, na avaliação de especialistas, precisam ser solucionados para tirar o plano do papel. A equipe econômica montou uma estratégia para tentar superar essas barreiras, como rodadas de eventos com investidores e oferecimento de pacotes de ativos para fundos imobiliários. 

A projeção de arrecadação até 2022 é com base em um mapeamento de 3.751 propriedades com melhores condições de irem a mercado. Na lista, há terrenos, galpões, prédios, salas comerciais e até fazendas. A expectativa da equipe econômica é levantar R$ 1 bilhão até o fim do ano. Se alcançada, a cifra seria quase o dobro do valor recebido com alienação de bens ao longo de toda a última década: R$ 664 milhões, segundo os dados do Ministério da Economia. Os imóveis mapeados até agora são uma pequena fração dos mais de 700 mil imóveis do governo federal, universo que inclui áreas que não podem ser vendidas, como praças e até praias. 

Para especialistas, o mercado imobiliário — que começa a se recuperar dos efeitos da recessão — terá capacidade de absorver esses ativos se o governo souber preparar os imóveis. Segundo os dados mais recentes da Associação Brasileira de Incorporadoras Imobiliárias (Abrainc), os lançamentos no país somaram 27.878 unidades entre janeiro e maio, alta de 4,1% em relação ao ano passado. 

MAIOR TRANSPARÊNCIA 

O presidente da Associação de Dirigentes de Empresas do Mercado Imobiliário do Rio (Ademi-RJ), Cláudio Hermolin, observa que o governo precisa investir para aumentar a atratividade desses bens. Uma das sugestões é ajudar grandes compradores a recuperarem o apoio dos investidores, facilitando o licenciamento de projetos, como condomínios ou empreendimentos comerciais. 

— É óbvio que imóvel que tenha liquidez vai ter mercado. O déficit habitacional no Brasil é imenso. Quando se fala em imóveis residenciais ou que tenham vocação para virar residenciais, como prédios ou terrenos, obviamente tem demanda. Mas esses ativos vão ser mais líquidos (fáceis de vender) quanto mais garantias a gente tiver de que pelo menos vai ter um fast track, uma atenção especial na aprovação. Você dá garantia jurídica para aquele investidor de que no mínimo vai ter uma atenção especial naquele projeto e que não vai cair no limbo (da burocracia) —diz Hermolin. 

Na avaliação do presidente da Patrimóvel, Rubem Vasconcellos, a comunicação com o mercado será fundamental. O especialista diz que éprecisogarantiromáximode transparência possível para que compradores tenham informações sobre as propriedades. Ele destaca que isso vale também para a venda em bloco, para fundos imobiliários. 

— Se juntar um pacotão de imóveis que não se sabe o que é, esse fundo imobiliário não vai dar rentabilidade. Imóvel não é papel para comprar sem ver —afirma Vasconcellos. 

Melhorias também podem ser feitas no arcabouço jurídico, avalia o advogado Raphael Espírito Santo, sócio da área imobiliária do escritório Veirano, que tem se reunido com representantes do governo e do setor imobiliário. Para ele, uma regra que pode ser revista é a de avaliação do valor dos imóveis. Hoje, bens públicos precisam seguir regras rígidas de fixação de preço, com base nas características da propriedade. Segundo o especialista, isso dificulta oferecer descontos, caso o ativo tenha problemas como invasão. 

— O que estamos vendo é um plano de desestatização imobiliária. Acho que é a primeira vez que isso acontece na história do Brasil. Com o arcabouço legal que a gente tem hoje, é possível (vender esses imóveis). Mas dá para deixar o processo mais dinâmico —comenta Espírito Santo. 

TRÊS NÍVEIS DE LIQUIDEZ 

Parte do dever de casa sugerido pelos analistas começou a ser feito pelo governo. Segundo o secretário de Coordenação e Governança do Patrimônio da União (SPU), Fernando Bispo,osimóveisforamdivididos por nível de liquidez, de acordo com a facilidade para vender: baixo, médio e alto. Todos os 3.751 selecionados até agora estão desocupados, de acordo com a pasta. 

Como as propriedades são muito diferentes, o governo deve lançar mão de estratégias distintas para se desfazer de cada uma delas. Para se ter uma ideia, o imóvel mais caro da carteira é um terreno avaliado em R$ 850 milhões. O mais barato, uma sala comercial de R$ 20 mil. Para testar o apetite do mercado, a pasta começou a colocar na rua alguns editais. Está prevista, por exemplo, a venda de nove apartamentos em Brasília. 

— São muitos imóveis e com classes distintas. Temos pacotes de problemas e pacotes de soluções. A venda de imóveis para pessoa física é interessante e necessária, e por onde nós começamos —conta Bispo. 

A equipe econômica não revelou exatamente quais imóveis estão à venda por acreditar que a informação pode interferir nas negociações, já que nem todos serão imediatamente colocados no mercado. De acordo com o levantamento, São Paulo é o estado que mais concentra essas propriedades. São 887 com potencial de venda, 23% do total. No Rio, foram identificados 39 ativos que podem ser alienados.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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