Brazil: Lei dos distratos é debatida na 8ª edição do ADIT Juris

Last Updated: 16 May 2019
Article by Veirano E Advogados Associados
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, May 2019

Direto de Florianópolis (SC) – Esse painel que terminou agora a pouco faz parte da grade de programação da 8ª edição do ADIT Juris. Esse evento promovido pela ADIT Brasil no Majestic Palace Hotel (https://www.majesticpalace.com.br/), em Florianópolis (SC), tem a Revista Hotéis como Midia Oficial e se encerra hoje com a presença de 311 inscritos. Os maiores desenvolvedores dos mercados imobiliário e turístico do País, escritórios jurídicos e advogados estão presentes discutindo estratégias e apresentando soluções para estes segmentos. Esse painel teve como foco as novas perspectivas para incorporação imobiliária com a Lei 13.786/2018 (Lei dos Distratos). Essa lei disciplinou questões sobre a inadimplência em contratos de compra e venda de imóveis, ao estipular percentuais de multa para o distrato, que é quando o cliente desiste da compra. Ela foi aprovada no final do ano passado, prevê multa de no máximo, 25% dos valores pagos e no caso de patrimônio de afetação, no máximo 50% dos valores pagos. Ou seja, quando tem um CNPJ separado do da construtora, mas fora desse caso, deve ser aplicado o percentual mais baixo. Esse painel contou moderação de  Bruno Aronne  (Veirano Advogados)  e a participação dos seguintes painelistas: Marcelo Terra (Duarte Garcia, Serra Netto e Terra Advogados), Melhim Chalhub (Chalhub Advogados). Bruno Aronne disse que a Lei dos Distratos é muito importante para o setor, mas como ainda é recente, muitos conflitos judiciais estão acontecendo e quis saber se a lei vai reaquecer o setor, com a retomada de empregos e tributos. 

Insegurança jurídica 

O Advogado Marcelo Terra iniciou fazendo suas considerações com um retrospecto da questão em que a jurisprudência viu de forma equivocada o Código de Defesa do Consumir e tentou regrar de forma mais clara os direitos e obrigações com o direito do consumidor desistir de um negócio de forma motivada. "Isso gerou uma grande insegurança jurídica entre incorporadores e construtores e fica patente com a quebra da força vinculativa do contrato de compra e venda e reflexo negativo. Contrato que não seja exequível, ele é anárquico. Se temos uma promotoria do mal consumidor, deveríamos ter também uma defensoria do incorporador e construtor e isso é algo a se pensar. Quando temos demagogia em momento de crise, temos a tempestade perfeita. O raciocínio é simplista, o adquirente perderá o imóvel, pois não pagou, o incorporador poderá alienar o imóvel a terceiros até mesmo com lucro", disse o Advogado Marcelo Terra. 

Na avaliação dele, o erro está na interpretação da lei do Código de Defesa do Consumidor. "Essa nova lei altera a de incorporações e loteamentos, é uma lei disruptiva, ela rompe a inércia e tira todo mundo da zona do conforto. Nenhum incorporador sério quer receber somente a metade, ele quer receber é os 100%", destacou. 

Melhim Chalhub destacou que a lei não foi feita para beneficiar os incorporadores e construtores, Melhim Chalhub tomando a palavra disse que mesmo muita gente acreditando que essa lei foi feita para beneficiar os incorporadores e construtores, na verdade a grande defesa foi dos defensores dos consumidores e com forte atuação do Deputado federal Celso Russomano. Em relação ao atraso da obra, ele disse que caberá duas hipóteses, a indenização mensal de 1% sobre valor pago ou resolução com restituição integral. O prazo para devolução é de 180 dias, contados da data do desfazimento do contrato (exceto também no caso de revenda). Já para os loteamentos urbanos, a restituição poderá se dar em até 12 parcelas mensais. 

A Revista Hotéis é Midia Oficial desse evento e a reportagem se hospeda no Majestic Palace Hotel para cobrir esse evento.

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